Appendix 2.4 - POP Emissions From Mobile Sources

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

Road Transport

For PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the July 2017 version of (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [1] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, a tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [2] is used instead.

Table 1: Tier1 default emisison factors applied to road vehicles
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAHs 1-4 PCDD/F
[mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel oil 368 386 203 368 1,324
Biodiesel1 368 386 203 368 1,324
Gasoline fuels 96 140 69 158 464
CNG NE NE NE NE NE
LPG 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.2
Biogas NE NE NE NE NE
all fuels 0.0000056

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

Here, the tier1 values for PAH exhaust emissions have been derived from the following tier1 default values provided in the July 2017 version of the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook:

Non-road Mobile Machinery in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a.ii,1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.ii and 1.A.5.b i

Table 3: Tier1 default emisison factors applied to NRMM
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil 698 1.164 801 184 2,847 1.623
Biodiesel1 806 1.343 924 212 3,284 1.87
Gasoline fuels - 4-stroke 919 919 90 204 2,131 2.763
Gasoline fuels - 2-stroke2 919 919 90 204 2,131 57.53
LPG (1.A.4.a ii only) 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.04 NE

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2 no separate values available for 2-stroke-mix including 1:50 lube oil.
3 tier1 values derived from [2]

Railways

Table 3: Tier1 default emisison factors applied to railway vehicles
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-43 PCDD/F
[mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil 6982 1,1642 8011 1841 2,8473 2.09
Biodiesel 806 1,343 924 212 3,284 2.41
Lignite Briquettes 34,500 NE NE NE 90,000 29.80
Raw Lignite NE NE
Hard Coal NE NE
Hard Coal Coke NE NE

1 tier1 default from [1], chapter: 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles1
2 tier1 default from [1], chapter: 1.A.3.c - Railways
3 sum of tier1 default value applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[…]P

As the EMEP/EEA GB 2016 does not provide a tier1 value for PCDD/F, the EF applied here has been derived from a study carried out by Rentz et al. (2008) [2] for the German Federal Environment Agency.
Furthermore, both HCB and PCBs emissions are stated as not applicable in [2], chapter 1.A.3.c Railways, Table 3-1 Tier 1 emission factors for railways.

Inland Vessels and Ships in 1.A.3.d ii

Table 4: Tier1 default emission factors applied to inland ships and vessels
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-42 HCB PCBs PCDD/F
[mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil 6984 1,1644 8015 1845 2,847 1.863 0.883 93.07
Biodiesel1 806 1,343 924 212 3,284 1.02 2.15 107

1 similar EF for biodiesel applied for all mobile sources; due to lack of better information EF values are derived from conventional diesel oil but taking into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
3 tier1 defaults from [1], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Tables 3-1 and 3-2
4 tier1 defaults from [1], Chapter: 1.A.3.c Railways: Diesel, Table 3-1
5 tier1 defaults from [1], Chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport, Table 3-8: HDV, Diesel

Maritime Vessels and Ships in 1.A.3.d i, 1.A.3.d ii, 1.A.4.c iii and 1.A.5.b iii

The following table provides the tier1 EF applied for POPs from ships and vessels in both civil and military operation in NFR categories 1.A.3.d i -International Maritime Navigation, 1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation (Shipping), 1.A.4.c iii -Fisheryand 1.A.5.b iii - Other: Military Navigation.

Table 4: Tier1 default emission factors applied to maritime ships and vessels
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-42 HCB PCBs PCDD/F
[mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil 6984 1,1644 8015 1845 2,847 1.863 0.883 93.07
Biodiesel1 806 1,343 924 212 3,284 2.15 1.02 107
Heavy Fuel oil6 741 1,235 849 195 3,020 3.46 14.1 98.7

1 similar EF for biodiesel applied for all mobile sources; due to lack of better information EF values are derived from conventional diesel oil but taking into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
3 tier1 defaults from [1], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Tables 3-1 and 3-2
4 tier1 defaults from [1], Chapter: 1.A.3.c Railways: Diesel, Table 3-1
5 tier1 defaults from [1], Chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport, Table 3-8: HDV, Diesel
6 derived from default for fossil diesel oil, but adapted to specific NCV of heavy fuel oil
7 tier1 value derived from [2]

Aircraft in 1.A.3.a and 1.A.5.b ii

The EMEP/EEA GB 2016 (July 2017) does not provide specific defaults for POP emissions from the combustion of jet kerosene and aviation gasoline, stating that for for aviation gasoline these emissions are not estimated (NE):

Therefore, the inventory compiler decided to apply the tier1 EF for PAHs from gasoline fuel used in non-road mobile machinery here, too.
Furthermore, both HCB and PCBs emissions are stated as not applicable in [2], chapter 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, Table 3.3 Tier 1 emission factors for NFR 1.A.3.a.ii.(i): Civil aviation (domestic, LTO).

As the Party assumes that POP emissions from the combustion of jet kerosene are unlikely to occur, these emission are reported as not applicable (NA).

Table 5: Tier1 default emisison factors applied to aircraft, in [mg/TJ]
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
Kerosene NA NA NA NA NA NA
Aviation gasoline 126 182 90 205 602 NE

Bibliography
1. EMEP/EEA (2016): EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, URL: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2016; Copenhagen, July 2017.
2. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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