3.D - Agricultural Soils

Last updated on 09 Oct 2018 06:49 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
3.D Agricultural Soils
consisting of / including source categories
3.D.a.1 Inorganic N-fertilizers (includes also urea application) T2 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) NS,RS D (NH3), D (NOx) L: NOx | L & T: NH3
3.D.a.2.a Animal manure applied to soils T2, T3 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) M CS (NH3), D (NOx) L: NOx | L & T: NH3
3.D.a.2.b Sewage sludge applied to soils T1 (for NH3,NOx) NS, RS D (NH3), D (NOx) no key category
3.D.a.2.c Other organic fertilisers applied to soils (including compost) T2 (for NOx, NH3) M CS L & T: NH3
3.D.a.3 Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals T1 (for NH3, NOx) NS,RS D no key category
3.D.c Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products T1 (for TSP, PM10, PM2.5,) NS, RS D L: TSP | L & T: PM10
3.D.e Cultivated crops T2 (NMVOC) NS, RS D no key category
3.D.f Agriculture other including use of pesticides T2 (HCB) NS D L & T: HCB

Country specifics

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NH3 and NOx

In 2016, the sector of agricultural soils contributes ca. 361.4 Gg NH3 or 57.4 % to the total agricultural NH3 emissions in Germany (629.2 Gg NH3). The main sources are the application of manure (3.D.a.2.a), contributing 53.3 % or 192.8 Gg and the application of inorganic N-fertilizers (3.D.a.1), contributing 27.7 % or 100.0 Gg of soil-related NH3 emissions. Figures for the application of inorganic N-fertilizers differ significantly from that calculated for Submission 2017 due to the modified emission factors provided in the new guidebook (EMEP, 2016 [10]).

Application of sewage sludge (3.D.a.2.b), contributing 0.7 % or 2.5 Gg of soil-related NH3 emissions is reported for the first time.

The application of residues from digested energy crops (3.D.a.2.c) contributes 57.7 Gg or 16.0 % to NH3 emissions from soils. However, these emissions are excluded from emission reporting by adjustment as emissions from the application of digestates of energy crops are not considered in the NEC and Gothenburg commitments (see adjustment-de-c). N excretions on pastures (3.D.a.3) have a share of 2.3 % (~8.3 Gg).

In 2016, agricultural soils make up 98.3 % (124.3 Gg) of the total of NOx emissions in the agricultural sector (126.4 Gg). The NOx emissions from agricultural soils are mostly due to application of inorganic fertilizer (3.D.a.1) (54.3 %) and manure (3.D.a.2.a) (31.3 %). The source “application of residues from digested energy crops” (3.D.a.2.c) contributes 9.6 % to agricultural soil emissions while excretions on pastures (3.D.a.3) are of minor importance (4.3 %). Emissions from application of sewage sludge (3.D.a.2.b), contributing 0.6 % of soil-related NOx emissions are reported for the first time.

All NOx emissions are excluded from emission reporting by adjustment as they are not considered in the NEC commitments.

NMVOC

In 2016, the sector of agricultural soils contributes 9.6 Gg NMVOC or 4.7 % to the total agricultural NMVOC emissions in Germany. The only source is emissions from cultivated crops (3.D.e). NMVOC emissions from soils are excluded from emission reporting by adjustment as they are not considered in the NEC commitments.

TSP, PM10 & PM2.5

In 2016, agricultural soils contribute 28.1 % (17.4 Gg), 56.5 % (17.4 Gg) and 14.6 % (0.7 Gg) to the total agricultural TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions (TSP: 61.9 Gg, PM10: 30.8 Gg PM2.5: 4.6 Gg), respectively. The emissions are reported in category 3.D.c (Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products).

3.D.a.1 - Inorganic N-fertilizers

Activity Data

German statistics report the amount of fertilizers sold. Assuming that the change of fertilizers stocked is small compared with the amount of fertilizers sold, the amount of fertilizer sold is taken to be the amount of fertilizer applied.

Table 1: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of inorganic fertilizers

2018_3D_Table_1.PNG

Methodology

NH3 emissions from the application of inorganic fertilizers are calculated using the Tier 2 approach according to EMEP (2016)-3D-14ff [10], distinguishing between various fertilizer types, see Table 2. For details see Haenel et al. (2018) [1].
For NOx, the Tier 1 approach described in EMEP (2016) [10]-3D-11ff is applied.

Emission factors

The emission factors for NH3 depend on fertilizer type, see EMEP (2016)-3D-15 [10]. Table 2 lists the EMEP emission factors for the fertilizers used in the inventory. In order to reflect average German conditions the emission factors for cool climate and a pH value lower than 7 was chosen.

Table 2: NH3-EF for inorganic fertilizers
Inorganic fertilizers, emission factors in kg NH3 per kg fertilizer N
Fertilizer type EF
calcium ammonium nitrate 0.008
nitrogen solutions (UREA AN) 0.098
urea 0.155
ammonium phosphates 0.050
other NK and NPK 0.050
other straight fertilizers 0.010

For NOx, the simpler methodology by EMEP (2016)-3D-11ff [10] was used. The emission factor 0.040 from EMEP, 2016-3D, Table 3.11 has the units of kg N2O per kg fertilizer N and was derived from Stehfest and Bouwman (2006). The German inventory uses the emission factor 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N derived from Stehfest and Bouwman (2006). This is, rounded to five decimals, equivalent to an emission factor of 0.03943 kg NOx per kg fertilizer N (obtained by multiplying 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N with the molar weight ratio 46/14 for NO2 : NO). The inventory uses the unrounded emission factor.

Table 3: Emission factor for NOx emissions from fertilizer application
Emission factor kg NO-N per kg fertilizer N kg NOx per kg fertilizer N
EFfert 0.012 0.03943

3.D.a.2.a - Animal manure applied to soils

In this sector Germany reports the NOx emissions from application of manure (including application of anaerobically digested manure).

Activity data

The calculation of the amount of N in manure applied is based on the N mass flow approach (see 3.B). It is the total of N excreted by animals in the housing and the N imported with bedding material minus N losses by emissions of N species from housing and storage. Hence, the amount of total N includes the N contained in anaerobically digested manures to be applied to the field.

The frequencies of application techniques and incorporation times as well as the underlying data sources are described in Haenel et al. (2018). The frequencies are provided e. g. in the NIR 2018 [11], Chapter 19.3.2.

Table 4: AD for the estimation of NOx emissions from application of manure

2018_3D_Table_4.PNG

Methodology

NH3 emissions from manure application are calculated separately for each animal species in the mass flow approach by multiplying the respective TAN amount with NH3 emission factors for the various manure application techniques. For details see 3.B and Haeneln et al. (2018) [1].
For NOx emissions from manure application the inventory calculates NO-N emissions that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/14. The Tier 1 approach for the application of inorganic fertilizer as described in EMEP (2016)-3D-11ff [10] is used, as no specific methodology is available for manure application.

Emission factors

Table 5 shows the implied NH3 emission factors defined as the ratio of total NH3-N emission from manure application to the amount of N spread with manure.

Table 5: IEF for NH3–N from application of manure

2018_3D_Table_5.PNG

For NOx the same emission factor as for the application of inorganic fertilizer was used (see Table 3 ).

3.D.a.2.b – Sewage sludge applied to soils

EMEP (2016)-3D, Table 3.1 [10] provides, for the first time, Tier 1 emission factors for NH3 and NOx emissions from application of sewage sludge. Hence the emissions from this source are reported for the first time in this submission.

Activity data

N quantities from application of sewage sludge were calculated from data of the Federal Environment Agency and (since 2009) from data of the Federal Statistical Office (see Table 6). Hence, there was no need to use the “per capita” activity data as proposed by EMEP (2016)-3.D, Table 3-1 [10].

Table 6: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of sewage sludge
2018_3D_Table_6.PNG

Methodology

NH3 and NOx emissions from application of sewage sludge are calculated by multiplying the amounts of N applied with sewage sludge with the respective emission factors.

Emission factors

It must be noted that the units of the NH3 emission factor provided in EMEP (2016)-3.D, Table 3-1 [10] are incorrect. According to the derivation of this factor, described in the appendix of EMEP (2016)-3D, page 25-26, [10], the resulting emission factor is 0.11 kg NH3-N per kg of N in sewage sludge N.
For NOx the same emission factor as for the application of inorganic fertilizer was used (see Table 3).

3.D.a.2.c - Other organic fertilizers applied to soils

This sector describes Germany’s NH3 and NOx emissions from application of residues from digested energy crops.

Activity data

The amount of N in residues from digested energy crops is the N content of the energy crops minus N losses by emissions of N species from the storage of the digestion residues (see 3.I).

Table 7: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of residues from digested energy plants
2018_3D_Table_7.PNG

Methodology

The NH3 emissions are calculated the same way as the NH3 emissions from application of animal manure (3.D.a.2.a). The frequencies of application techniques and incorporation times as well as the underlying data sources are described in Haenel et al. (2018) [1]. The frequencies are provided e. g. in the NIR 2018 [11], Chapter 19.3.2. The amounts of TAN in the residues applied result from the calculations of emissions from the storage of the digested energy crops (3.I). For details see Haenel et al. (2018) [1].

For NOx emissions from application of residues from digested energy crops the Tier 1 approach for the application of inorganic fertilizer as described in EMEP (2016)-3D-11 [10] is used. The inventory calculates NO emissions that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/30.

Emission factors

According to the practice used for the application of digested manure (3.D.a.2.a), the NH3 emission factors for untreated cattle slurry were adopted, see Haenel et al. (2018) [1]. As for the calculation of NOx emissions the method for fertilizer application is applied, the emission factor for fertilizer application (see Table 3) was used. Table 7 shows the implied emission factors for NH3 emissions from application of residues from digested energy crops.

Table 8: IEF for NH3-N
2018_3D_Table_8.PNG

3.D.a.3 - Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals

Activity data

Activity data for NH3 emissions during grazing is the amount of TAN excreted on pasture (see 3.B) while for NOx emissions it is the amount of N excreted on pasture. For details see Haenel et al. (2018) [1]).

Table 9: N excretions on pasture
2018_3D_Table_9.PNG

Methodology

NH3 emissions from grazing are calculated by multiplying the respective animal population (3.B, Table 1) with corresponding N excretions and relative TAN contents (3.B, Table 2) and the fraction of N excreted on pasture (Table 9). The result is multiplied with the animal specific emission factor (Table 10). NO emissions are calculated the same way with the exception that the emission factor is related to N excreted instead of TAN.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for NH3 are taken from EMEP (2016)-3B-29, Table 3.9 [10]. They relate to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. For the first time and following the intention of EMEP, 2016-3D, Table 3.11 [10], the present submission uses for NOx the same emission factor as for the application of inorganic fertilizer (see Table 3). In order to obtain NOx emissions (as NO2) the NO-N emission factor of 0.12 kg NO-N per kg N excreted is to be multiplied by 46/14.

Table 10: Emission factors for emissions of NH3 and NO from grazing
Emission factors
Dairy cows 0.10 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Other cattle 0.06 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Horses 0.35 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Sheep, goats 0.09 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
All animals 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N excreted

3.D.c - Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products

In this sector Germany reports TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from crop production according to EMEP (2016)-3D-11 [10].

Activity data

The activity data is the area of arable and horticultural land. This data is provided by official statistics.

Table 11: AD for the estimation of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from soils
2018_3D_Table_11.PNG

Methodology

As the Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP (2016)-3D-17 [10] cannot be used due to lack of input data, the Tier 1 methodology described in EMEP(2016)-3D-11ff [10] is used.

Emission factors

Emission factors given in EMEP (2016)-3D-12 [10] are used.

Table 12: Emission factors for PM emissions from agricultural soils
Emission factor kg ha-1
EFTSP 1.56
EFPM10 1.56
EFPM2.5 0.06

3.D.e - Cultivated crops

In this sector Germany reports NMVOC emissions from crop production according to EMEP (2016)-3D-11 [10]. For details see Haenel et al. (2018) [1].

Activity data

The activity data is the area of arable land and grassland. This data is provided by official statistics.

Table 13: AD for the estimation of NMVOC emissions from crop production
2018_3D_Table_13.PNG

Methodology

In EMEP (2016)-3D-15ff [10] the methodology is described how the EMEP Tier 1 EF was estimated. This methodology was adopted to estimate German emissions. It is considered a Tier 2 methodology.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for wheat, rye, rape and grass (15°C) given in EMEP (2016)-3D-16, Table A3-3 [10] were used. For all grassland areas the grass (15°C) EF is used, for all other crops except rye and rape the EF of wheat is used. Table 14 shows the implied emission factors for NMVOC emissions from crop production. The implied emission factor is defined as ratio of the total NMVOC emissions from cultivated crops to the total area given by activity data.

Table 14: IEF for NMVOC emissions from crop production
2018_3D_Table_14.PNG

3.d.f - Agriculture other including use of pesticides

(on separate page)

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