2.L(a) - Handling of Bulk Products

Last updated on 08 Feb 2018 10:13 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under category 2.L(a) - Handling of Bulk Products dust emissions from bulk material handling (loading and unloading) including agricultural bulk materials offsite the fields are reported. Emissions from quarrying and mining of minerals and from point source emissions are excluded.

Method

For 1990 to 1996, only simplified estimates without a differentiation of handled materials and products exist.
For all following years, emissions are calculated using a tier1 method taking into account detailed data on handled materials and products.

Activity data

Official statistics are of limited use in determining handling of bulk products. There are only transport statistics available providing the amounts of several transported materials.

During a research project carried out by (Müller-BBM) [1], activity data was derived from primary statistical data from the Federal Statistical Office for Germany (Satistisches Bundesamt, Destatis) and the Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, KBA). Here, data on goods transported by railways and ships is gathered by Destatis whereas data for road transport is collected by the KBA.

Here, for all years until 2009, the collection of data for transported goods followed the official NST/R (1968) nomenclature and regulation (Eurostat, 2014a) [2].

As of 2010, statistical data following the newly implemented NST-2007 [3], [4] nomenclature and regulation from Destatis and KBA is applied instead.

Table 1: Overview of primary activity data sources over time
1990-1996 simplified estimates without differentiation of handled materials
1997-2009 statistical data following NST/R nomenclature
as of 2010 statistical data following NST-2007 nomenclature

Here, NST/R allowed the distribution of a broad variety of goods and materials (e.g. barley, corn, oats, rice, rye, and wheat), whereas NST-2007 provides only a very condensed list of classes of goods (e.g. 'crops').

Due to these methodological breaks, activity data and emissions show inconsistencies (especially on the level of specific goods and materials) that cannot be eliminated at the moment.
Nonetheless, on a aggregate level, these breaks are balanced out more or less automatically as the total amount of transported dry materials does not chnage too much with changing statistical approaches.

For estimating the amount of moved bulk materials as well as emissions from the loading and unloading of bulk materials, these primary activity data (PAD, including the amounts of imported and exported goods as well as goods transported within Germany) have to be calculated from the amounts of transported goods:

(1)
\begin{gather} PAD_\text{ material i} = PAD_\text{ total import material i} + PAD_\text{ total export material i} + 2 \cdot PAD_\text{ total domestic transport material i} \end{gather}

with
PAD import = amounts of imported goods
,
PAD export = amounts of exported goods
, and
PAD domestic = amounts of goods transported only within Germany

As the basic statistics provide only total amounts of imported, exported and domestically transported dry goods without any distinction into bulk and packed goods, the shares of bulk goods had to be estimated via expert judgement during the workshop mentioned above.

During this workshop, experts, for comparable kinds of dry bulk material, discussed specific shares displaying which part of the total amount of dry material i loaded and/or unloaded within Germany might be transported as bulk material thus causing PM emissions.

So the activity data finally used for estimating specific particulate matter emissions for every bulk material is calculated as a specific share s of the amount of this material i loaded and/or unloaded within Germany:

(2)
\begin{gather} AD_\text{ bulk material i} = PAD_\text{ material i} \cdot s_\text{ bulk share material i} \end{gather}
Table 2: Amounts of dry, dusty bulk goods handled in Germany 2010-2016, in tonnes
Product / Good / Material Mode of transport 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Crops heavy-duty vehicle 9,816,233 9,348,956 9,693,828 11,180,006 11,452,177 11,243,918 10,046,500
railway 2,982,548 2,982,548 2,446,615 1,994,499 2,688,008 4,583,000 3,545,040
inland vessel 65,464,800 65,723,600 63,027,200 63,948,600 70,614,200 70,614,200 58,304,413
sea-going vessel 9,319,143 7,155,770 7,103,932 10,159,483 10,599,072 12,142,981 10,735,948
Potatoes heavy-duty vehicle 1,383 1,620 30 1,034 NE 0 0
railway 17,135 17,135 38,819 38,425 9,898 0 0
inland vessel 10,627,000 10,136,400 10,056,600 11,717,000 9,956,800 9,956,800 4,683,480
sea-going vessel 29,296,456 26,293,129 29,732,990 23,583,567 23,943,784 21,170,067 20,406,870
Sugar beet heavy-duty vehicle 0 5,003 0 1,035 6,362,106 6,366,439 6,426,328
railway 123,598 123,598 96,747 29,869 46,870 24,000 64,094
inland vessel 26,946,200 27,903,200 31,496,200 20,903,200 36,601,000 36,601,000 22,159,060
sea-going vessel 17 142 1,843 1,154 4,086 2,872 3,125
Other herbal products heavy-duty vehicle 5,523,633 5,711,645 6,541,031 6,529,161 38,829,323 39,189,603 38,498,874
railway 1,242,916 1,242,916 170,158 807,829 17,868 470,000 547,545
inland vessel 20,847,400 30,967,600 29,445,800 28,094,800 34,166,200 34,166,200 22,918,493
sea-going vessel 4,052,384 6,083,248 5,690,857 6,321,278 6,052,546 6,376,068 7,164,149
Products from grinding and shelling mills heavy-duty vehicle 1,782,712 2,567,049 3,086,180 2,871,889 3,200,833 4,133,053 5,180,094
railway 2,852 2,852 328,857 350,368 362,180 0 465,039
inland vessel 97,539,400 106,391,800 104,354,000 101,813,400 99,568,200 99,568,200 75,685,582
sea-going vessel 3,104,125 3,995,488 3,971,495 3,638,766 3,903,447 3,525,359 3,586,612
Raw mineral chemicals heavy-duty vehicle 6,794,922 11,213,581 11,750,342 12,044,542 2,556,501 2,366,579 2,573,770
railway 9,827,059 9,827,059 10,158,766 9,139,348 10,472,017 9,273,000 9,627,577
inland vessel 78,928,400 89,219,400 83,315,200 84,937,600 82,363,000 82,363,000 10,043,513
sea-going vessel 5,550,621 8,904,300 8,692,669 8,768,942 8,741,513 7,905,516 7,888,208
Raw organic chemicals heavy-duty vehicle 6,299,350 6,310,746 6,636,096 6,417,766 171,884 57,126 114,803
railway 16,287,803 16,287,803 19,006,897 17,965,252 17,716,320 21,094,000 18,661,643
inland vessel 11,345,600 5,875,200 5,293,800 5,192,200 4,570,800 4,570,800 0
sea-going vessel 3,638,264 2,630,859 2,502,315 2,690,538 3,182,266 2,478,579 2,341,016
Iron ore heavy-duty vehicle 25,728,177 23,048,502 21,885,592 23,312,725 24,389,450 25,203,179 25,755,504
railway 38,565,334 38,565,334 37,513,305 37,215,277 39,012,340 37,708,000 37,434,377
inland vessel 203,800 1,502,000 1,166,000 NE NE NE 1,764,223
sea-going vessel 13,922,885 12,702,983 13,397,347 14,028,077 14,444,514 13,967,430 13,365,447
Non-iron ores heavy-duty vehicle 1,512,246 2,991,850 3,399,513 2,909,452 3,186,877 2,964,925 2,827,648
railway 29,742 29,742 15,232 6,651 7,972 8,000 6,642
inland vessel 705,600 788,600 2,480,600 1,321,000 NE NE 0
sea-going vessel 2,687,815 3,186,505 3,474,240 3,065,484 3,204,390 2,850,350 3,870,273
Raw coals heavy-duty vehicle 36,652,759 36,960,623 37,127,495 39,825,584 39,049 0 0
railway 58,433,815 58,433,815 69,687,308 73,653,317 69,222,607 67,749,000 61,034,978
inland vessel 10,561,400 9,592,600 10,288,800 14,056,000 13,275,800 13,275,800 11,858,051
sea-going vessel 13,299,295 14,640,469 13,878,763 14,194,693 14,065,658 16,476,145 14,401,269
Coal products heavy-duty vehicle 2,409,311 1,961,483 1,315,205 1,665,936 1,871,597 1,361,655 2,003,004
railway 22,499,503 22,499,503 8,513,061 9,144,558 7,120,072 6,721,000 6,610,955
inland vessel 11,801,600 12,236,800 10,278,800 10,415,800 15,401,600 15,401,600 7,065,314
sea-going vessel 802,164 398,570 59,335 53,695 72,473 48,778 43,760
Mineral fertilisers heavy-duty vehicle 760,174 390,276 304,450 279,444 271,253 305,202 281,603
railway 4,122,535 4,122,535 3,890,715 3,684,926 3,578,700 3,424,000 3,619,997
inland vessel 7,923,200 6,028,800 2,236,000 2,532,400 4,322,000 4,322,000 1,338,908
sea-going vessel 117,224 563,030 348,447 395,809 507,459 409,515 256,924
Nitrogen fertilisers heavy-duty vehicle 5,737,386 5,636,147 5,616,853 5,321,196 5,267,318 5,104,076 4,930,755
railway 15,708,472 15,708,472 15,592,709 15,550,134 14,971,021 14,091,000 13,614,102
inland vessel 37,454,600 44,977,200 61,230,200 64,460,400 71,366,600 71,366,600 28,434,989
sea-going vessel 5,309,443 5,821,309 5,953,434 6,489,522 6,378,323 6,509,499 7,011,855
Natural sands, gravel, and stones heavy-duty vehicle 40,518,020 40,340,856 38,487,658 35,673,470 34,713,430 31,927,501 33,178,046
railway 56,517,180 56,517,180 48,907,929 46,590,830 45,317,601 43,958,000 43,837,499
inland vessel 1,655,747,400 1,875,461,200 1,780,682,400 1,810,580,800 1,853,177,400 1,853,177,400 1,669,958,849
sea-going vessel 8,739,096 11,121,374 11,421,774 9,822,506 9,947,768 9,739,769 10,353,589
Rock & saline salt heavy-duty vehicle 2,769,356 5,367,045 4,297,737 4,588,453 3,959,354 3,939,437 3,651,498
railway 3,067,187 3,067,187 2,413,134 2,963,318 2,258,785 2,575,000 2,362,886
inland vessel 21,579,000 18,284,800 11,550,200 13,746,800 7,887,600 7,887,600 7,238,776
sea-going vessel 567,059 1,340,830 1,062,136 912,141 761,849 919,251 888,593
White cement, lime, cement heavy-duty vehicle 3,273,975 3,324,316 3,120,120 3,046,615 2,408,113 2,479,720 2,532,347
railway 17,849,146 17,849,146 17,115,456 18,418,916 19,947,465 21,867,000 19,270,679
inland vessel 69,407,200 81,743,800 71,895,800 76,202,600 86,441,400 86,441,400 76,251,684
sea-going vessel 1,544,488 2,130,253 2,171,491 1,954,095 2,699,787 2,757,516 2,470,814
Secondary raw materials heavy-duty vehicle 15,691,876 15,455,505 15,346,780 15,565,961 12,209,667 11,521,886 11,212,165
railway 25,614,264 25,614,264 24,816,767 24,034,064 23,099,944 22,113,000 21,261,312
inland vessel 422,570,000 465,981,000 452,569,000 464,878,800 490,299,000 490,299,000 161,493,436
sea-going vessel 5,047,097 5,440,262 6,098,151 5,739,258 6,094,992 5,810,444 5,057,435
All dry dusty bulk goods and metarials all modes 3.094.812.778 3.408.748.813 3.276.249.204 3.319.442.257 3.401.354.127 3.396.924.038 2.660.221.962

sources: annual data deliveries DESTATIS & KBA (for heavy-duty vehicles) to the inventory compiler

Emission factors

Emission factors are based on the methodology according VDI guidelines 3790. The values used here originate from a research project by (Müller-BBM, 2011) [1] taking into account information of an expert panel of industry and administration. For details see the project report (German version only).

Within the study, PM emission factors are estimated for each material or good that might be transported as dry and unpacked bulk. These very specific EF are than assigned to the classes of materials/goods available from the different different statistics (NST/R, NST-2007) to form implied Ef for these class of bulk material.

As NST/R provided a wide variaty of goods and materials, whereas NST-2007 provides only a very condensed list of classes of goods, the very specific EF derived during the study and the joint expert workshop have been aggregated in order to match the classes of goods following NST-2007.

Table 2: specific EF for PM emissions from NST/R crop products, in [kg/t], as used for 2009 estimates
vehicle type TSP PM10 PM2.5
for barley
inland ship 0.038 0.019 0.004
railway 0.038 0.019 0.004
maritime ship 0.038 0.019 0.0038
heavy-duty vehicle 0.038 0.019 0.004
for oats
inland ship 0.018 0.009 0.002
railway 0.018 0.009 0.002
maritime ship 0.018 0.009 0.00179
heavy-duty vehicle 0.018 0.009 0.002
for corn
inland ship 0.029 0.014 0.003
railway 0.029 0.014 0.003
maritime ship 0.029 0.014 0.00287
heavy-duty vehicle 0.029 0.014 0.003
for rice
inland ship 0.015 0.008 0.002
railway 0.015 0.008 0.002
maritime ship 0.015 0.008 0.00151
heavy-duty vehicle 0.015 0.008 0.002
for rye
inland ship 0.038 0.019 0.004
railway 0.038 0.019 0.004
maritime ship 0.038 0.019 0.0038
heavy-duty vehicle 0.038 0.019 0.004
for wheat
inland ship 0.038 0.019 0.004
railway 0.038 0.019 0.004
maritime ship 0.038 0.019 0.0038
heavy-duty vehicle 0.038 0.019 0.004

Here, in order to match the new NST-2007 classes for goods and materials, the very specific emission factors used in fomer submissions were converted to aggregated implied emission factors.

Table 3: IEFs used for emission estimates as of 2010, in [kg/t]
Product / Good / Material Heavy-duty vehicles Railways Inland vessels Sea-going vessels
TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5
Other herbal products 0.032000 0.016000 0.003200 0.024000 0.012000 0.002400 0.022000 0.011000 0.002200 0.028000 0.014000 0.002800
Chemische Grundstoffe. mineralisch 0.041000 0.020500 0.004100 0.031000 0.015500 0.003100 0.029000 0.014500 0.002900 0.036000 0.018000 0.003600
Raw organic chemicals 0.024000 0.012000 0.002400 0.018000 0.009000 0.001800 0.017000 0.008500 0.001700 0.021000 0.010500 0.002100
Iron ore 0.057000 0.028500 0.005700 0.042000 0.021000 0.004200 0.040000 0.020000 0.004000 0.050000 0.025000 0.005000
Crops 0.045000 0.022500 0.004500 0.034000 0.017000 0.003400 0.031000 0.015500 0.003100 0.039000 0.019500 0.003900
Potatoes 0.007000 0.003500 0.000700 0.005000 0.002500 0.000500 0.005000 0.002500 0.000500 0.006000 0.003000 0.000600
Coal products 0.019000 0.009500 0.001900 0.014000 0.007000 0.001400 0.013000 0.006500 0.001300 0.017000 0.008500 0.001700
Products from grinding and shelling mills 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300
Mineral fertilisers 0.024000 0.012000 0.002400 0.018000 0.009000 0.001800 0.017000 0.008500 0.001700 0.021000 0.010500 0.002100
Natural sands. gravel. and stones 0.027000 0.013500 0.002700 0.020000 0.010000 0.002000 0.019000 0.009500 0.001900 0.023000 0.011500 0.002300
Non-iron ores 0.066000 0.033000 0.006600 0.049000 0.024500 0.004900 0.046000 0.023000 0.004600 0.058000 0.029000 0.005800
Raw coals 0.016000 0.008000 0.001600 0.016000 0.008000 0.001600 0.020000 0.010000 0.002000 0.028000 0.014000 0.002800
Secondary raw materials 0.027000 0.013500 0.002700 0.020000 0.010000 0.002000 0.019000 0.009500 0.001900 0.023000 0.011500 0.002300
Rock & saline salt 0.068000 0.034000 0.006800 0.051000 0.025500 0.005100 0.047000 0.023500 0.004700 0.059000 0.029500 0.005900
Nitrogen fertilisers 0.024000 0.012000 0.002400 0.018000 0.009000 0.001800 0.017000 0.008500 0.001700 0.021000 0.010500 0.002100
White cement. lime. cement 0.005000 0.002500 0.000500 0.004000 0.002000 0.000400 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300 0.004000 0.002000 0.000400
Sugar beet 0.000240 0.000120 0.000024 0.000180 0.000090 0.000018 0.000170 0.000085 0.000017 0.000210 0.000105 0.000021

Ratio TSP : PM10 : PM2.5

The shares of PM10 and PM2.5 of the entire amounts of emitted TSP have been set to fixed values used for the entire time series.

Assumptions:

  • TSP = 100%,
  • 50% of TSP are =< 10 µm. Therefore, the EF(PM10) are assumed as 1/2 of the corresponding EF(TSP), and
  • 10% of TSP are =< 2.5 µm. Therefore, the EF(PM2.5) are assumed as 1/10 of the corresponding EF(TSP).
PM-ratios.PNG

The ratios of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were also discussed in the research project mentioned above, but without generating any new data. Nonetheless, the ratios might be to low at the moment and will be checked furthermore.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 2.L(a) is key category for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP.

In general, diffuse particulate matter emissions depend strongly on the amounts of dry bulk goods handled and transported. In addition, due to efforts to prevent such particle emissions, the time series of the emission factors applied for all three fractions of particulate matter show a falling trend.

Recalculations

With both activity data and emission factors remaining unrevised, no recalculations have been carried out.

Planned improvements

Although no specific improvement is planned, additional effort will be necessary to further minimise the inconsistencies in the activity data time series resulting from the different approaches applied.


Bibliography
1. Müller-BBM, 2011: Dr. Matthias Bender, Ludger Gronewäller, Detlef Langer: Konsistenzprüfung und Verbesserungspotenzial der Schüttgutemissionsberechnung - Umweltforschungsplan des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Förderkennzeichen3708 49 107 2 - FB 00 1453 UBA; Müller- BBM GmbH, Im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Planegg/Dessau-Roßlau, Februar 2011 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/konsistenzpruefung-verbesserungspotenzial
2. Eurostat, 2015a: Standard Goods Classification for Transport Statistics/Revised (1967) NST/R - URL: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/nomenclatures/index.cfm?TargetUrl=LST_NOM_DTL&StrNom=NSTR_1967&StrLanguageCode=EN&IntPcKey=&StrLayoutCode=HIERARCHIC
4. Destatis, 2013: Statistisches Bundesamt, Verkehr, NST-2007: Einheitliches Güterverzeichnis für die Verkehrsstatistik – 2007 - URL: https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/Wirtschaftsbereiche/TransportVerkehr/Gueterverkehr/Tabellen/NST2007.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
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