2.H.2 - Food & Beverages Industry

Last updated on 18 Mar 2020 09:30 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
2.H.2 Food & Beverages Industry T1 (NMVOC, TSP, PM10, PM 2.5) NS CS (NMVOC, PM10, Pm2.5, TSP), D (NMVOC) no key source

Emissions occurring in this sector in Germany derive from the following production processes which are analogous to the IPCC category (Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Reference Manual (Volume 3)):

Alcoholic beverages

  • Wine
  • Beer
  • Spirits

Bread and other foods

  • Meat, fish and poultry
  • Sugar
  • Margarine as well as hard and hardened fats
  • Cake, cookies and breakfast cereals
  • Bread
  • Animal feedstuffs
  • Coffee roasting

Following pollutants are reported:

  • volatile organic compounds (NMVOC),
  • particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP).

Pursuant to the 1993 Classification of Economic Activities (WZ 93), the food and beverage industry is divided into nine groups and a total of 33 classes. Governmental statistical evaluations are oriented to this classification. The German food industry includes an especially large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); nearly 80 percent of its companies have fewer than 100 employees, and only 3 per cent have more than 500 employees (BpB, 2002, p.51).

Emissions of the food and drink industry are reported, in summary form, in the inventory in of the sectoral report for industrial processes. Emissions in detail for the resp. products are presented in Table 1 and Table 2. Energy related emissions from the sugar industries are reported under category 1.A.2.

Table 1: NMVOC emissions from 2011 up to the last reporting year.


Table 2: Particle emissions from 2011 up to the last reporting year.



For emissions calculations, country-specific emission factors were used where available. EF were evaluated and updated by a national research study "J. Theloke, S. Wagner, D. Jepsen, U. Hackmack: Emissionen aus der Nahrungsmittelindustrie", 2008, FKZ 206 42 101/01. Otherwise, the emission factors recommended by IPCC and CORINAIR were used (see Table 4 and Table 5).

The Central System of Emissions (CSE) lists activity rates (produced amounts) and emission factors for the relevant sectors. The activity rates for the various products / product groups, with the exception of that for feedstuffs, were obtained from the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, Fachserie 4, Reihe 3.1 and Fachserie 3, Reihe 3.2.1 and 3.22) [1], [2], [3].

Activity data

The activity data for feedstuffs were obtained from the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV, 2018) (Statistisches Jahrbuch über Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten) [4]. The production amounts are serve as activity data, see Table 3.

Table 3: The production amounts for the estimation of emissions.


Emission factor

All NMVOC emission factors except for beer were perpetuated during the complete time series. The emission factor for beer changed in 2000 (see Table 4).

Table 4: NMVOC Emission factors.


In the following table the EF of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 are presented.

Table 5: Emission factors for particles.


Trend discussion for Key Sources

NMVOC and particle emissions from this sector are no key sources.


Activity data and emission factors remain unrevised, no recalculations have been carried out compared to last year's submission. Only updates for activity data in 2017 were considered.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant-specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


The assumed uncertainties are described in following table below.

Table 6: Overview of used uncertainties.


Planned improvements

In 2020 the start of a research project to update the database is planned. Results will be available in 2022 at the earliest.

1. Statistisches Bundesamt (FS 4, R 3.1): Fachserie 4, Reihe 3.1: Produzierendes Gewerbe, Produktion im Produzierenden Gewerbe ("manufacturing industry; production in the manufacturing industry"; URL: https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Branchen-Unternehmen/Industrie-Verarbeitendes-Gewerbe/_inhalt.html
2. Statistisches Bundesamt (FS 3, R 3.2.1): Fachserie 3, Reihe 3.2.1: Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Fischerei, Wachstum und Ernte – Feldfrüchte (div. Jgg.). URL: https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Branchen-Unternehmen/Landwirtschaft-Forstwirtschaft-Fischerei/Flaechennutzung/_inhalt.html
3. Statistisches Bundesamt (FS 3, R 3.2.2): Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Fischerei, Wirtschaftsdünger tierischer Herkunft inlandwirtschaftlichen Betrieben - Erhebung zur Wirtschaftsdüngerausbringung (div. Jgg.).
4. BMELV, 2018: Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV): Statistisches Jahrbuch über Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten; URL: https://www.ble-medienservice.de/1767/statistisches-jahrbuch-ueber-ernaehrung-landwirtschaft-und-forsten-2017
5. J. Theloke, S. Wagner, D. Jepsen, U. Hackmack, Emissionen aus der Nahrungsmittelindustrie", 2008, FKZ 206 42 101/01, Umweltbundesamt Dessau
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