2.G(a) - Fireworks

Last updated on 18 Mar 2020 09:25 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In this sub-category of 2.G(a) - Other product use: Fireworks Germany reports NOx, SOx, CO, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn emissions from fireworks.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
2.G(a) Other Product use: Fireworks T2 NS D see superordinate chapter


Activity data

Statistical data on imports, exports and production of fireworks are used to calculate the consumption.

consumption = import + production - export.
production (Source: Destatis, 42131-0003 Vierteljährliche Produktionserhebung i.Verarb.Gew. - GP09-205113000 Feuerwerkskörper) [1]
import & export (Source: Destatis, 51000-0013 Außenhandel - WA36041000 Feuerwerkskörper) [2]

The amounts of fireworks produced in Germany are confidential since 2005. For the following years, an expert judgement was done. This is deemed acceptable as the produced amounts are of minor relevance compared to the amounts imported and exported.

The sold amounts of fireworks have increased strongly from 1990 to 1995. From 1995 to 1997 the emissions were relatively high but decreased from 1997 to 2005. Since then, the emissions have been relatively constant with small fluctuations.

Emission factors

The emission factors are derived from [3], page 20, table 3-13: Tier 2 emission factor for source category 2.D.3.i, 2.G Other solvent and product use, Other, Use of Fireworks.


No recalculations were necessary in this submission.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant-specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


The uncertainty for the AD is given as 5% for the lower bounds and as 50% for the upper bounds. This disparity is based on the assumption that there are unknown imports of fireworks not recorded in the statistics.

Planned improvements

Since December 2019 the UBA is in contact with the national association of the pytotechnical industry (VPI - Verband der Pyrotechnischen Industrie). The VPI has financed independent measurements of TSP, PM2.5 and PM10. The VPI and UBA are in a discussion process if the emission factors derived from the measurements could be used for future reporting. With the new set emission factors the calculated emissions would be lower than currently reported.

Furthermore Germany has so far not reported HCB emissions from tobacco conbsumption. UBA is trying to get adequate HCB-EFs for this section. According to DIN EN 15947-5:2015 the usage of HCB, As and Pb since 2014 is forbidden. UBA plans to change the emissions from As and Pb from 2014 onwards to NO.


1. Statistisches Bundesamt (42131-0003): Vierteljährliche Produktionserhebung im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe - GP09-205113000 Feuerwerkskörper; URL: https://www-genesis.destatis.de/genesis/online/data;sid=641CDA4FAAF93C130415951E35C6F337.GO_2_2?operation=abruftabelleAbrufen&selectionname=42131-0003&levelindex=0&levelid=1552378901672&index=3
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
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