2.D.3.i - Other Solvent Use

Last updated on 16 Apr 2019 13:22 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
2.D.3.i Other Solvent Use T2 NS CS L & T: NMVOC

The following product groups and processes are taken into consideration:

  • Glass and mineral wool enduction
  • Fat, edible and non-edible oil extraction
  • Application of glues and adhesives (paper and packaging; wood; footwear; transport; Do-it-yourself-applications; others)
  • Preservation of wood
  • Underseal treatment and conservation of vehicles
  • Vehicles dewaxing
  • Other:
    • Plant protectives
    • Dichloromethane in strippers
    • Removal of paints from incorrectly coated aluminium parts
    • Removal of paint from steel parts
    • Concrete additives
    • De-icing (Aircraft de-icing; De-icing of operated areas; Other de-icing applications)
    • Applications in scientific laboratories (R&D; analyses; universities)
  • Lubricants The use of lubricants comprises the entire use phase including the process stages of Input and output. The products or lubricants covered here, are divided into lubricants for automotive and industrial use with a further differentiation into different lubricant types:
    • Engine oil
    • Automotive Gear oil
    • Industrial gear oil
    • Compressor oil
    • Turbine oil
    • Hydraulic oil
    • Electro insulating oil
    • Machine oil
    • Process oil
    • Other industrial oils not for lubricating purposes
    • Metal working fluids
    • Greases
    • Base oil
    • Extracts from lubricant refining

2-stroke engine oils are excluded as emissions from use of lubricants in 2-stroke engines are considered in 1.A.4.b ii.

‘NMVOC’ is defined in keeping with the VOC definition found in the EC solvents directive. For purposes of the definition of solvents, the term ‘solvent use’ is also defined in keeping with the EC solvents directive.


General procedure

NMVOC emissions are calculated in keeping with a product-consumption-oriented approach. In this approach, solvent-based products or solvents are allocated to the source category, and then the relevant NMVOC emissions are calculated from those solvent quantities via specific emission factors. Thus, the use of this method is possible with the following valid input figures for each product group:

  • Quantities of VOC-containing (pre-) products and agents used in the report year,
  • The VOC concentrations in these products (substances and preparations),
  • The relevant application and emission conditions (or the resulting specific emission factor).

The quantity of the solvent-based (pre-)product corresponds to the domestic consumption which is the sum of domestic production plus import minus export.

VOC Emission = domestic consumption of a certain product * solvent content * specific emission factor

The calculated NMVOC emissions of different product groups for a source category are then aggregated.
The product / substance quantities used are determined at the product-group level with the help of production and foreign-trade statistics. Where possible, the so-determined domestic-consumption quantities are then further verified via cross-checking with industry statistics.

Procedure for lubricants

Activity rate
The emissions calculation method follows a Tier-2 approach. It uses national statistical data [1] for the quantities placed on the market specific per lubricant types as activity rate and specific emission factors for each lubricant type. It is assumed that the amount of lubricants placed on the market per year equals the lubricant use (consumption) in the same year.

Emission factor
Along the life cycle of the different lubricant types, different kinds of losses occur. Only some types of losses are of relevance with regard to air emissions and the different lubricants types differ significantly from each other. Relevant emitted pollutants identified for lubricants are NMVOC and CO2. But only for engine oils used in machinery and in vehicles emission of both could be accounted for due to combustion of a small fraction of lubricating oils directly resulting in CO2 emissions.

Table 1: Tier 2 emission factor for source category 2.D.3.i, 2.G Other solvent and product use, Other
Emission factor CO2 Emission factor NMVOC
Lubricant type Default Range Default Range Reference
Engine oil 24% 23-25% 1% 0-2% [2]-[4]
Automotive gear oil 0% - 1% 0-2% [2]-[7]
Industrial gear oil 0% - 1,5% 1-2% [3],[4],[8]
Compressor oil 0% - 1,5% 1-2% [2]-[7]
Turbine oil 0% - 0,5% 0-1% [2],[3],[5]
Hydraulic oil 0% - 1,5% 1-2% [2],[3],[5]
Electro insulating oil 0% - 0% 0% [3],[5]
Machine oil 0% - 2,5% 0-5% [2],[5],[9]
Process oils 0% - 0% 0% [4],[10],[11]
Other oil not for lubricating purposes 0% - 25% 0-50% [3],[10]-[12]
Metalworking fluids 0% - 5% 0-10% [2],[4],[13]
Greases 0% - 0% - [10],[11]
Base oil 0% - 10% 5-15%
Extracts from lubricant production 0% - 0% - [2],[10],[11]

Discussion of emission trends

General information

Since 1990, so the data, NMVOC emissions from use of solvents and solvent-containing products in general have decreased by nearly 38%. The main emissions reductions have been achieved in the years since 1999. This successful reduction has occurred especially because of regulatory provisions such as the 31st Ordinance on the execution of the Federal Immissions Control Act (Ordinance on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain facilities – 31. BImSchV), the 2nd such ordinance (Ordinance on the limitation of emissions of highly volatile halogenated organic compounds – 2. BImSchV) and the TA Luft.

Specific information

Until 1999, data of the present source categories 2.D.3.a, 2.D.3.h and 2.D.3.i were treated as one source group. Since 2000, a more detailed data collection enables to follow the development of source group 2.D.3.i, which accounts for about 1/5 to 1/4 of total NMVOC emissions from solvent-based products (Figures 1-2). Compared to 2005, emissions went down mainly due to a clearly reduced consumption of concrete additives.

Figure 1: Development of NMVOC emissions of category 2.D.3.i since 2005.

Figure 2: Development of NMVOC emissions from source groups 2.D.3.a, h, i in comparison to total NMVOC emissions from solvent-based products and applications since 1990.

A decrease in the NMVOC emissions of Category 2.D.3.i can be observed since 2005. Table 2 lists six product groups that cause major emissions in category 2.D.3.i.

Table 2: Product groups primarily contributing to NMVOC emissions
Major emissions from … 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Concrete additives 34% 41% 36% 29% 26% 35% 25% 22% 26% 15% 23% 21% 26%
Underseal treatment and conservation of vehicles 9% 8% 8% 9% 11% 8% 10% 11% 16% 13% 20% 19% 18%
Application of glues and additives 16% 10% 12% 15% 14% 11% 14% 15% 20% 14% 20% 22% 20%
Deicing 8% 7% 8% 7% 10% 14% 9% 5% 12% 7% 10% 11% 11%
Fat, edible and non-edible oil extraction 4% 4% 6% 6% 7% 5% 6% 6% 9% 5% 8% 9% 8%

The table presents the share of emissions on total emissions of this source group. These six activities comprise together 88 – 93% of total emissions of 2.D.3.i depending on the considered years.

Table 3: Product groups primarily contributing to emissions and their relative development compared to 2005
Major emissions from … 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Concrete additives 100% 134% 108% 76% 57% 107% 62% 53% 43% 30% 32% 29% 41%
Underseal treatment and conservation of vehicles 100% 101% 93% 93% 94% 95% 96% 106% 107% 107% 108% 108% 110%
Application of glues and additives 100% 72% 73% 79% 66% 72% 72% 72% 69% 59% 59% 64% 65%
De-icing 100% 103% 101% 74% 98% 181% 96% 55% 86% 62% 61% 68% 76%
Fat, edible and non-edible oil extraction 100% 110% 134% 115% 115% 115% 115% 119% 123% 80% 87% 99% 99%


Uncertainties for emissions for each technology / application were obtained by error propagation and refer to the 95% confidence interval.

Domestic Consumption: The applied relative uncertainty was ±10% for all applications.

Solvent content: For each application / product, a relative error at ±15% was applied (exception: lubricants at 25%), but not exceeding 100% or falling below 0%.

Emission factors: A relative error at ±15% was applied, but not exceeding 100% or falling below 0%. Exceptions were de-icing applications, applications in scientific laboratories and lubricants with a relative error at 25%.

Hence, the overall uncertainty of emissions caused by application of products of this source group is between 40% and 60%.


The emission factors are based on a broad review of literature and results from relevant research projects and have been discussed with senior lubricant experts. The experts suggested using ranges which are provided in the emission factor table 1.

For activity data, an uncertainty of 5 percent is assumed considering the well developed national statistics.


Data for the previous year were re-calculated based on the final foreign trade statistics but did not show any significant change.


NMVOC emissions from the use of lubricants have not previously been calculated. To ensure a consistent time series the same method and data sets were used for every year.

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

No category-specific improvements are planned.

1. Official Mineral-oil Data (amtliche Mineralöldaten) of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA)
2. Ökopol. Consultation of different senior lubricant experts and manufacturers: Hamburg, 2017.
3. Zimmermann, T.; Jepsen, D. Return rates for used lubricant oils in Belgium: Study on Waste Oil Return in Belgium; Ökopol, 2017.
4. Jepsen, D.; Zimmermann, T.; Sander, K.; Wagner, J. Erhebung der Struktur des Altölsammelmarktes und Optimierungspotenziale für bessere Altölqualitäten im Kontext der Abfallhierarchie; Ökopol: Dessau-Roßlau, 2016.
5. Sander, K.; Jepsen, D.; Zangl, S.; Schilling, S. Stoffstrom- und Marktanalyse zur Sicherung der Altölentsorgung. Forschungsbericht 204 31 32 UBA-FB 000883: Dessau-Roßlau, 2006.
6. Kline & Company. Lubricant Consumption and Used Oil Generation in California: A Segmented Market Analysis: Part II: Collectable Used Oil Availability in California, 2000-2011. published 03/03/2015: Sacramento, CA, USA, 2012.
7. UNEP. Compendium of Recycling and Destruction Technologies for Waste Oils: Osaka, Japan, 2012.
9. Vidal-Abarca, G. C.; Kaps, R.; Oliver, W.; Escamilla, M.; Josa, J.; Riera, M. R.; Benedicto, E. Revision of European Ecolabel Criteria for Lubricants. Preliminary Report: Sevilla, 2016.
10. Möller, U. J. Altölentsorgung durch Verwertung und Beseitigung; Kontakt & Studium Bd. 253; Expert Verlag: Renningen, 2004.
11. Bartz, W. J.; Springer, G.; Blanke, H.-J. Expert Praxislexikon Tribologie Plus: 2010 Begriffe für Studium und Beruf, 2., völlig neubearb. Aufl. des Lexikons der Schmierungstechnik von G. Vögtle; Expert Verlag: Renningen, 2000.
13. Kolshorn, K.-U.; Wiesert, P.; Götz, R.; Rippen, G. Ermittlung von Altölvermeidungspotentialen: UBA-Forschungsvorhaben Nr. 103 60 111; Trischler und Partner GmbH: Darmstadt, 1996.
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