2.D.3.i Stationary Lubricants Use

Last updated on 05 Mar 2020 12:05 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
2.D.3.i Lubricants Use T2 NS CS see superordinate chapter

The use of lubricants comprises the entire use phase including the process stages of Input and output. The products or lubricants covered here, are divided into lubricants for automotive and industrial use with a further differentiation into different lubricant types:

* Engine oil
* Automotive Gear oil
* Industrial gear oil
* Compressor oil
* Turbine oil
* Hydraulic oil
* Electro insulating oil
* Machine oil
* Process oil
* Other industrial oils not for lubricating purposes
* Metal working fluids
* Greases
* Base oil
* Extracts from lubricant refining


2-stroke engine oils are excluded as emissions from use of lubricants in 2-stroke engines are considered in 1.A.4.b ii.
All other emissions from the unintended co-incineration of lubricants in mobile machinery and vehicles (other than 2-strokes) are reported in NFR chapter 2.G.4(d) for now.
‘NMVOC’ is defined in keeping with the VOC definition found in the EC solvents directive. For purposes of the definition of solvents, the term ‘solvent use’ is also defined in keeping with the EC solvents directive.


Procedure for lubricants

Activity rate
The emissions calculation method follows a Tier-2 approach. It uses national statistical data [1] for the quantities placed on the market specific per lubricant types as activity rate and specific emission factors for each lubricant type. It is assumed that the amount of lubricants placed on the market per year equals the lubricant use (consumption) in the same year.

Emission factor
Along the life cycle of the different lubricant types, different kinds of losses occur. Only some types of losses are of relevance with regard to air emissions and the different lubricants types differ significantly from each other. Relevant emitted pollutants identified for lubricants are NMVOC and CO2. But only for engine oils used in machinery and in vehicles emission of both could be accounted for due to combustion of a small fraction of lubricating oils directly resulting in CO2 emissions.
For Electro insulating oils [3],[5], Process oils [4],[10],[11], Greases [10][11] and Extracts from lubricant production[2],[10],[11] no emissions expected.
All emission factors are determined in a research project (UBA, 2018) [14].

Table 1: Tier 2 emission factor for source category 2.D.3.i, 2.G Other solvent and product use, Other
Emission factor CO2 Emission factor NMVOC
Lubricant type Default Range Default Range Reference
Engine oils 24% 23-25% 1% 0-2% [2]-[4]
Automotive gear oils - - 1% 0-2% [2]-[7]
Industrial gear oils - - 1,5% 1-2% [3],[4],[8]
Compressor oils - - 1,5% 1-2% [2]-[7]
Turbine oils - - 0,5% 0-1% [2],[3],[5]
Hydraulic oils - - 1,5% 1-2% [2],[3],[5]
Machine oils - - 2,5% 0-5% [2],[5],[9]
Other oils not for lubricating purposes - - 25% 0-50% [3],[10]-[12]
Metalworking fluids - - 5% 0-10% [2],[4],[13]
Base oils - - 10% 5-15% [14]

Discussion of emission trends

The consumption of lubricants in Germany has remained at a relatively constant level since 1990, apart from a sharp decrease in 2009 that was related to the overall economic situation.


The emission factors are based on a broad review of literature and results from relevant research projects and have been discussed with senior lubricant experts. The experts suggested using ranges which are provided in the emission factor table 1.

For activity data, an uncertainty of 5 percent is assumed considering the well developed national statistics.


NO recalculation.

Planned improvements

No category-specific improvements are planned.

1. Official Mineral-oil Data (amtliche Mineralöldaten) of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA)
2. Ökopol. Consultation of different senior lubricant experts and manufacturers: Hamburg, 2017.
3. Zimmermann, T.; Jepsen, D. Return rates for used lubricant oils in Belgium: Study on Waste Oil Return in Belgium; Ökopol, 2017.
4. Jepsen, D.; Zimmermann, T.; Sander, K.; Wagner, J. Erhebung der Struktur des Altölsammelmarktes und Optimierungspotenziale für bessere Altölqualitäten im Kontext der Abfallhierarchie; Hg. v. Umweltbundesamt (UBA). Ökopol: Dessau-Roßlau, 2016.
5. Sander, K.; Jepsen, D.; Zangl, S.; Schilling, S. Stoffstrom- und Marktanalyse zur Sicherung der Altölentsorgung. Forschungsbericht 204 31 32 UBA-FB 000883: Dessau-Roßlau, 2006.
6. Kline & Company. Lubricant Consumption and Used Oil Generation in California: A Segmented Market Analysis: Part II: Collectable Used Oil Availability in California, 2000-2011. published 03/03/2015: Sacramento, CA, USA, 2012.
7. UNEP. Compendium of Recycling and Destruction Technologies for Waste Oils: Osaka, Japan, 2012.
9. Vidal-Abarca, G. C.; Kaps, R.; Oliver, W.; Escamilla, M.; Josa, J.; Riera, M. R.; Benedicto, E. Revision of European Ecolabel Criteria for Lubricants. Preliminary Report: Sevilla, 2016.
10. Möller, U. J. Altölentsorgung durch Verwertung und Beseitigung; Kontakt & Studium Bd. 253; Expert Verlag: Renningen, 2004.
11. Bartz, W. J.; Springer, G.; Blanke, H.-J. Expert Praxislexikon Tribologie Plus: 2010 Begriffe für Studium und Beruf, 2., völlig neubearb. Aufl. des Lexikons der Schmierungstechnik von G. Vögtle; Expert Verlag: Renningen, 2000.
13. Kolshorn, K.-U.; Wiesert, P.; Götz, R.; Rippen, G. Ermittlung von Altölvermeidungspotentialen: UBA-Forschungsvorhaben Nr. 103 60 111; Trischler und Partner GmbH: Darmstadt, 1996.
14. UBA, 2018: Zimmermann, T.; Jepsen, D. (2018) Entwicklung von Methoden zur Berechnung von Treibhausgas- und Luftschadstoffemissionen aus der Verwendung von Schmierstoffen und Wachsen.
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