2.C.2 - Ferroalloys Production

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Source category Ferroalloys Production is of minor significance and not a key source.

Ferroalloys are nonferrous metal aggregates that are alloying agents for the steel production. Germany has five producers of ferrochrome, silicon metal and ferrosilicon; these materials are used as alloying agents in stainless-steel production. Activity data can be obtained from the national official statistics for 2001 to 2006 and from the British Geological Survey (BGS) for 1990 to 2007 - with the latter being almost 50% higher. Due to consistency of time series, available data from the BGS are used for the whole period 1990 - 2015. In addition, the only process in use in Germany since 1995 is the electric arc process, a process that releases only small amounts of process-related emissions, with such releases occurring in electrode consumption. Until 1995, the blast-furnace process, which produces relatively higher emissions, was used to some extent.


Activity data

An activity rate figure of 55,140 t has been used for the year 2017 (adjusted value of 2016 statistical data), a recalculation will be made when updated statistical data are available.

Emission factors

The emission factor for TSP (0.1 kg/t for the current year and back to 1998) and the splitting factors for PM10 and PM2.5 are determined in a research project (UBA, 2007) [1].

There were higher but decreasing EF for the period 1990 -1997 due to the technology change.


Recalculations were necessary due to updated activity data for the last reported year.

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.

1. UBA, 2007: Jörß, Wolfram; Handke, Volker; Lambrecht, Udo and Dünnebeil, Frank (2007): Emissionen und Maßnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000 – 2020. UBA-TEXTE Nr. 38/2007. Dessau-Roßlau: Umweltbundesamt. URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/emissionen-massnahmenanalyse-feinstaub-2000-2020
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