2.A.6 - Other Mineral Products

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
2.A.6 Other Mineral Products T1 NS CS L & T: TSP

The NFR category 2.A.6 (other) is not comparable with the CRF structure. So the CRF category 2.A.4.a Ceramics production includes the same figures. Information about the key source relevance can be found in 2.A Mineral Industry.

The ceramics industry in Germany is very heterogeneous. It involves a large number of products that are characterized by different fields of application and corresponding chemical compositions. In addition to clay (as the main raw material), sand and other natural raw material amounts, synthetically produced materials such as aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide are also used. The mixture, which is homogenously mixed from primary raw materials and only in small quantities of secondary raw materials, is burned mainly in tunnel kilns and hearth furnaces at kiln temperatures between 1,100 - 1,300 °C.


In contrast to carbon dioxide, emissions of air pollutants are calculated using only the Tier 1 method, since no product-specific data are available and this source category is not a key source. In relation to the quantity produced, bricks and refractory products as well as wall and floor tiles are important.

Activity data

For submission in 2018, the production figures (activity rates) were evaluated as completely as possible by the Federal Statistical Office. In order to complete the data available, the annual production of each product category was determined in the context of an expert study in cooperation with the Federal Statistical Office (J. Gottwald et al., 2017) [1]. Data from the Federal Statistical Office are available in different units (tonnes, square metres, pieces, value) depending on the product. In order to ensure consistent processing of the data, it is necessary to standardize the dimensions in tonnes by using conversion factors.

Emission factors

Process-related emissions originate in the raw materials for production (normally, locally available loams and clays with varying concentrations of organic impurities and specific raw material mixes). Some EF are documented in detail in a report of a research Project (Stein, Gronewäller, 2010) [2] taking into acount information of industry monitoring. Other EF are based on an expert judgements from UBA due to lack in EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook.

Table 1: Overview of applied emission factors, in kg/t
pollutant Name of Category EF value EF trend
NOx all ceramics 0.177 constant
SO2 all ceramics 0.10 constant
NMVOC all ceramics 0.008 falling
NH3 all ceramics 0.004 constant
TSP all ceramics 0.10 falling
PM10 all ceramics 0.08 falling
PM2.5 all ceramics 0.05 falling


Recalculations were necessary due to revised AD resulting in higher amounts for all years.

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

At the moment, some improvements of AD estimations are planned.

1. J. Gottwald et al., 2017: Prüfung der Vollständigkeit der Berichterstattungskategorie 'Keramische Erzeugnisse' insbesondere feinkeramische Erzeugnisse, Dessau-Roßlau, 2017;
URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/1968/publikationen/2017-01-19_dokumentationen_01-2017_emissionsrelevanz-feinkeramikbranche.pdf | Document (PDF)
2. Stein, Gronewäller, 2010: Aufbereitung von Daten der Emissionserklärungen gemäß 11. BImSchV aus dem Jahre 2004 für die Verwendung bei der UNFCCC- und UNECE-Berichterstattung
URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/461/publikationen/3923.pdf
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