2.A.3 - Glass Production

Last updated on 24 Mar 2020 14:49 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
2.A.3 Glass Production T2 AS CS T: SOx

Germany's glass industry produces a wide range of different glass types that differ in their chemical composition. Germany's glass sector comprises the following sub-sectors: container glass, flat glass, domestic glass, special glass and mineral fibres (glass and stone wool). The largest production quantities are found in the sectors of container glass and flat glass. Further processing and treatment of glass and glass objects are not considered.
Information about the key source relevance can be found in 2.A Mineral Industry.


The emissions are calculated via a higher Tier method resembling a Tier 2 method, as the activity rates are tied to specific emission factors for different glass types.

Activity data

The production figures are taken from the regularly appearing annual reports of the Federal Association of the German Glass Industry (Bundesverband Glasindustrie; BV Glas). "Production" refers to the amount of glass produced, which is considered to be equivalent to the amount of glass melted down.

Emission factors

The procedure used to determine emission factors for the various glass types involved and the pertinent emissions is described in detail in reports of research projects (Report-No. 001264, search "UBA-FB 001264" in [https://doku.uba.de] => OPAC => Signatur). The emission factors were calculated for the various industry sectors. The factors vary annually in keeping with industry monitoring, not only as steady trends, but as time ranges. Ranges below are given as averages over all glass types for main pollutants, but as averages over time for heavy metals:

Table 1: Overview of applied emission factors
pollutant products EF unit current Trend
NOx all glass types 1.0-3.4 kg/t constant
SO2 all glass types 0.39-1.9 kg/t constant
NMVOC all glass types 0.96 kg/t constant
NH3 all glass types 0.03-0.7 kg/t constant
TSP all glass types 0.02-0.04 kg/t constant
PM10 all glass types 0.01-0.03 kg/t constant
PM2.5 all glass types 0.01-0.02 kg/t constant
As container glass 0.04-0.13 g/t rising
Pb container glass 0.22-0.41 g/t rising
Cd container glass 0.01-0.04 g/t rising
Cr container glass 0.03-0.07 g/t falling
Cu container glass 0.10-0.23 g/t falling
Ni container glass 0.01-0.02 g/t erratic
Se container glass 0.8-1.9 g/t erratic

Trends in emissions

Trends in emissions correspond to trends of emission factors and of activity data. The resulting trends are not constant, but a complex result of different EF for various glass types. So emissions of SO2 could rising due to increased production Level of a relevant product.


Recalculations were necessary due to updated activity data for the last reported year.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant-specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

For purposes of updating the EF project has started in 2019, results are planned in 2020 [1].

1. ReFoPlan FKZ – 3719 52 1010: „Überarbeitung der Emissionsfaktoren für Luftschadstoffe in den Branchen Zementklinkerproduktion und Glasherstellung“
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