1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 08:41 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.a ii (i) Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

In NFR category 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO emissions from domestic flights between German airports occuring during LTO stage (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) are reported.
In the following, information on sub-category specific AD, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.

Method

Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV [1] as described above.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage, in terajoule
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
10,261 10,531 11,720 10,519 10,812 10,827 10,976 10,701 10,737 10,899 10,130 8,946 9,064 9,611 9,701

As explained above, the use of aviation gasoline is - due to a lack of further information - assumed to entirely take place within the LTO-range. As soon as better data allows the split-up of the consumption of aviation gasoline onto national and international aviation and onto both flight stages, Germany will accordingly adjust its inventory.

Table 2: annual avgas consumption, in terajoule
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
2,438 1,142 1,120 698 653 611 638 594 568 614 558 496 472 553 407

Emission factors

All country-specific emission factors used for emission reporting were basically ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [2] and have since then been compiled, revised and maintained in TREMOD AV [1].

Furthermore, the newly implemented EF(BC) have been estimated via f-BCs as provided in the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook [3], Chapter 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, page 49: "Conclusion".

For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 3: Annual country-specific emission factors from TREMOD Aviation, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Kerosene
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 47 27 21 20 19 21 20 17 16 17 17 18 19 15 14
NOx 273 267 280 260 259 260 270 281 285 283 285 289 289 297 299
SOx 25.1 15.2 8.46 6.34 5.92 5.50 5.07 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65
PM 1 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97
BC 2 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95
CO 285 285 272 283 279 273 265 247 242 247 245 233 232 222 213
Aviation gasoline
NH3 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
NMVOC 181 182 179 177 175 174 177 178 180 186 186 186 183 183 183
NOx 279 275 284 292 298 301 291 287 283 263 262 261 270 270 270
SOx 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51
PM2.5 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46
PM10 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46
TSP 3 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6
BC 2 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
CO 14,951 15,047 14,832 14,644 14,479 14,421 14,648 14,750 14,853 15,354 15,384 15,406 15,173 15,173 15,173
Pb 4 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481 9,481

1 EF(TSP) also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
2 estimated via a f-BCs (avgas: 0.15, jet kerosene: 0.48) as provided in [3]
3 also including TSP from lead: EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb) - see road transport
4 calculated from the average lead content of AvGas 100 LL (low-lead) of 0.56 g Pb/liter
7 tier1 default EF for gasoline passenger cars as suggested in [3], Chapter: Exhaust emissions from road transport, Table 3-6

Table 4: Tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Kerosene NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Aviation gasoline 9,481 0.005 0.200 0.007 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758 126 182 90 205 602 NE

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation - LTO is no key source.

Recalculations

Activity data

As mentioned in the superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a, the percentual shares of kerosene consumed during L/TO were revised for 2014 and 2015 within TREMOD AV.
In addition, the percentual shares of kerosene consumed during L/TO were revised for 2014 and 2015.

Table 5: Revised percentual share of kerosene consumed during L/TO for domestic flights, in %
2014 2015
Submission 2018 30.39 30.85
Submission 2017 30.30 30.30
absolute change 0.08 0.55
relative change 0.27% 1.80%

Hence, the amount of kerosene allocated to sub-category 1.A.3.a ii (i) had to be revised accordingly:

Table 6: Revised 2014 & 2015 kerosene consumption in 1.A.3.a ii (i), in terajoule
2014 2015
Submission 2018 9,064 9,611
Submission 2017 9,001 9,001
absolute change 63 610
relative change 0.70% 6.77%

Emission factors:

Several country-specific EF values for have been revised within TREMOD AV for 2014 and 2015:

Table 7: Revised 2014 & 2015 emission-factor values for jet kerosene, in [kg/TJ]
2014 2015
NMVOC
Submission 2018 18.62 15.38
Submission 2017 18.17 18.17
absolute change 0.45 -2.80
relative change 2.45% -15.40%
NOx
Submission 2018 288.70 296.78
Submission 2017 288.95 288.95
absolute change -0.25 7.84
relative change -0.09% 2.71%
CO
Submission 2018 231.53 222.13
Submission 2017 230.73 230.73
absolute change 0.80 -8.60
relative change 0.35% -3.73%

Furthermore, for avgas, tier1 emission factor values for heavy metals have been derived from the data provided in the 2016 EMEP Guideboook for exhaust emissions from road vehicles (July 2017 version, page 93, Table 3.77: Heavy metal emission factors for all vehicle categories in ppm/wt fuel):

Table 8: Newly implemented tier1 heavy-metal emission-factor values for aviation gasoline, in [g/TJ]
As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Se Zn
Submission 2018 0.007 0.005 0.145 0.103 0.200 0.053 0.005 0.758
Submission 2017 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

Consequently, emissions from the unintentional co-incineration of lubricants are reported under NFR 2.G - Other product use where corresponding tier1 EF from the 2016 EMEP Guideboook are applied (Table 3.78: Heavy metal emission factors for all vehicle categories in ppm/wt lubricant).

Lastly, for avgas again, tier1 emission factor values for PAH emissions have been adapted to the data provided in the 2016 EMEP Guideboook for exhaust emissions from road vehicles (July 2017 version, page 23, Table 3.9: Tier 1 emission factors for B(b)F and B(a)P):

Table 9: Revised tier1 PAHs emission-factor values for aviation gasoline, in [mg/TJ]
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4
Submission 2018 126 182 90 205 602
Submission 2017 919 919 90 205 2,133
absolute change -793 -738 0 0 -1,530
relative change -86% -80% 0% 0% -72%

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

FAQs

Why are emissions from aviation gasoline reported using a Tier 1 approach whereas for jet kerosene Tier 2a has been applied?

For reporting emissions from the cosumption of jet kerosene, the party uses an annual split factor provided by Eurocontrol to devide the total amount of kerosene used (from Energy Balances & Official oil data for the Federal Republic of Germany) onto national and international civil aviation. For aviation gasoline, such split factor does not exist. - Furthermore, the deviation of kerosene used onto flight stages LTO and Cruise has been carried out using data on numbers of take-offs from German airports provided by the German Federal Statistical Office. At the moment, such data is not available for aircraft using aviation gasoline.

On which basis does the party estimate the reported lead emissions from aviation gasoline?

assumption by party: aviation gasoline = AvGas 100 LL
(AvGas 100 LL is the predominant sort of aviation gasoline in Western Europe)
lead content of AvGas 100 LL: 0.56 g lead/liter (as tetra ethyl lead)

2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook:

Lead is added to aviation gasoline to increase the octane number. The lead content is higher than in leaded car gasoline,…

The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating lead emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport. (There, in contrast to aviation gasoline, the lead content constantly declined resulting in a ban of leaded gasoline in 1997.)

On which basis does the party estimate the reported TSP emissions from aviation gasoline?

The TSP emissions calculated depend directly on the reported lead emissions: The emission factor for TSP is 1.6 times the emission factor used for lead: EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb).
The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating TSP emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport.


Bibliography
1. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2017: TREMOD AV 2017
2. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2012: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, vorläufiger Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/entwicklung-eines-modells-zur-berechnung; Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2012
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. Copenhagen, 2016
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