1.A.3.a i (ii) - International Civil Aviation: Cruise

Last updated on 19 Mar 2019 13:06 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for 1
1.A.3.a i (ii) International Civil Aviation: Cruise T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M not included in key category analysis

In NFR category 1.A.3.a i (ii) - Internatinal Civil Aviation: Cruise emissions from international flights from German airports during cruise stage (above 3,000 feet of altitude) are reported.

In the following, information on sub-category specific activity data, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.

Method

Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV as described in the superordinate chapter.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during cruise-stage, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
152,682 186,400 243,292 289,459 305,085 316,427 319,258 310,547 304,170 286,922 313,516 321,015 307,488 305,071 330,738 367,231

source: Knörr et al. (2018c) [2] & Gores (2018) [3]

Emission factors

All country specific emission factors used for emission reporting were basically ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [1] and have since then been compiled, revised and maintained in TREMOD AV [2].

For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 2: Annual country-specific emission factors, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 13.5 8.99 5.57 5.20 5.08 4.91 4.78 4.71 4.66 4.57 4.44 4.46 4.50 4.47 4.44 4.52
NOx 313 317 329 335 336 339 341 344 350 352 359 364 368 374 378 380
SOx 25.1 15.2 8.46 6.34 5.92 5.50 5.07 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65
PM1 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65
BC2 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23
CO 72.0 59.8 44.3 40.2 39.2 38.2 37.1 36.8 36.4 36.2 35.8 35.6 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.5

1 EF(TSP) also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
2 estimated via a f-BC of 0.48 as provided in [4], Chapter: 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, page 49: "Conclusion".

NOTE: For the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, no clear indication is available, whether or not condensables are included.

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a i (ii) - International Civil Aviation - Cruise is not included in the national emission totals and hence not included in the key category analysis.

Recalculations

Activity data:

As mentioned in the superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a, the amounts of kerosene consumed during L/TO were revised within TREMOD AV.
Hence, the amounts remaining for the cruise stage have been adapted accordingly to meet the annual over-all inland deliveries as provided in the NEB.

Table 3: Revised kerosene usage in 1.A.3.a i (ii), in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Submission 2019 152,682 186,400 243,292 236,670 236,589 240,881 248,838 289,459 305,085 316,427 319,258 310,547 304,170 286,922 313,516 321,015 307,488 305,071 330,738
Submission 2018 148,763 181,458 237,547 230,989 230,905 235,231 243,308 283,279 298,525 309,590 312,344 303,947 297,582 279,989 306,791 314,460 300,743 298,115 323,838
absolute change 3,919 4,942 5,745 5,682 5,684 5,651 5,530 6,179 6,560 6,836 6,914 6,600 6,588 6,933 6,724 6,555 6,745 6,956 6,900
relative change 2.63% 2.72% 2.42% 2.46% 2.46% 2.40% 2.27% 2.18% 2.20% 2.21% 2.21% 2.17% 2.21% 2.48% 2.19% 2.08% 2.24% 2.33% 2.13%

Emission factors:

In parallel to the ad-hoc revision of the average LTO-consumptions, several country-specific EF values for have been revised within TREMOD AV:

Table 4: Revised country-specific emission-factors, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Non-methane volatile organic compounds - NMVOC
Submission 2019 9.27 11.56 10.48 12.13 13.23 13.29 13.04 13.09 13.06 13.25 13.24 13.66 14.12 13.54 13.43
Submission 2018 11.28 11.99 12.29 10.98 9.61 8.96 9.01 8.94 8.84 8.58 8.56 9.33 9.48 9.44 8.49
absolute change -2.00 -0.44 -1.81 1.15 3.62 4.33 4.03 4.16 4.22 4.67 4.68 4.34 4.65 4.10 4.95
relative change -17.8% -3.6% -14.7% 10.5% 37.7% 48.4% 44.7% 46.5% 47.7% 54.5% 54.7% 46.5% 49.0% 43.5% 58.3%
Nitrogen oxides - NOx
Submission 2019 342 381 351 338 339 346 358 366 372 375 380 385 384 388 396
Submission 2018 373 371 380 362 360 369 386 395 401 400 406 420 421 424 431
absolute change -30.2 10.1 -28.9 -23.4 -21.5 -22.9 -27.8 -29.0 -29.0 -25.3 -26.1 -35.3 -37.4 -35.9 -35.1
relative change -8.10% 2.71% -7.62% -6.48% -5.96% -6.21% -7.19% -7.33% -7.23% -6.32% -6.43% -8.39% -8.87% -8.47% -8.15%
Carbon monoxide - CO
Submission 2019 85.53 88.23 111.70 111.04 111.00 105.25 102.42 104.80 105.82 105.23 102.11 98.71 100.39 104.30 98.22
Submission 2018 97.84 102.36 99.75 87.16 85.98 80.60 79.66 82.55 84.67 85.61 82.63 73.59 75.13 81.76 76.95
absolute change -12.31 -14.12 11.96 23.88 25.02 24.65 22.76 22.25 21.14 19.62 19.48 25.12 25.27 22.54 21.27
relative change -12.6% -13.8% 12.0% 27.4% 29.1% 30.6% 28.6% 27.0% 25.0% 22.9% 23.6% 34.1% 33.6% 27.6% 27.6%

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

For information on planned improvements, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.


Bibliography
1. Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S. (2010): Entwicklung eines eigenständigen Modells zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs (TREMOD-AV) : Endbericht. Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/entwicklung-eines-modells-zur-berechnung; Berlin & Heidelberg, 2012.
2. Knörr et al. (2018c): Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S.: TREMOD Aviation (TREMOD AV) 2018 - Revision des Modells zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs (TREMOD-AV). Heidelberg, Berlin: Ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH & Öko-Institut e.V., Berlin & Heidelberg, 2018.
3. Gores (2018): Inventartool zum deutschen Flugverkehrsinventar 1990-2017, im Rahmen der Aktualisierung des Moduls TREMOD-AV im Transportemissionsmodell TREMOD, Berlin, 2018.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 - Copenhagen, 2016
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