1.A.3.a i (ii) - International Civil Aviation: Cruise

Last updated on 12 Mar 2020 09:01 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for 1
1.A.3.a i (ii) International Civil Aviation: Cruise T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M not included in key category analysis

In NFR category 1.A.3.a i (ii) - Internatinal Civil Aviation: Cruise emissions from international flights from German airports during cruise stage (above 3,000 feet of altitude) are reported.

In the following, information on sub-category specific activity data, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.

Method

Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV as described in the superordinate chapter.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during cruise-stage, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
150,852 187,855 243,544 288,819 305,632 291,248 314,638 320,599 307,487 306,766 331,644 365,499 376,210

source: Knörr et al. (2019c) [2] & Gores (2019) [3]

Emission factors

All country specific emission factors used for emission reporting were basically ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [1] and have since then been compiled, revised and maintained in TREMOD AV [2].

For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 2: Annual country-specific emission factors, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 13.4 9.47 5.93 5.44 5.35 5.20 5.07 4.95 4.91 4.81 4.70 4.70 4.64 4.65 4.46 4.52 4.64
NOx 308 313 319 330 331 334 335 339 346 349 354 354 354 354 359 361 362
SOx 19.7 19.5 19.5 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6
PM1 3.98 4.19 4.33 4.11 4.07 4.02 3.95 3.91 3.87 3.84 3.81 3.78 3.72 3.72 3.74 3.74 3.76
BC2 1.91 2.01 2.08 1.97 1.95 1.93 1.90 1.88 1.86 1.84 1.83 1.82 1.78 1.79 1.79 1.80 1.80
CO 71.0 60.3 44.9 40.0 39.2 38.3 37.4 36.4 35.9 35.6 35.5 35.6 35.3 35.5 33.5 33.6 34.0

1 EF(TSP) also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
2 estimated via a f-BC of 0.48 as provided in [4], Chapter: 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, page 49: "Conclusion".

NOTE: For the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, no clear indication is available, whether or not condensables are included.

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a i (ii) - International Civil Aviation - Cruise is not included in the national emission totals and hence not included in the key category analysis.

Recalculations

Activity data have been revised for all years within TREMOD AV to keep in line with information available from the 2019 EMEP/EEA Guidebook [4] and Eurocontrol's AEM model [5].

Table 3: Revised kerosene usage in 1.A.3.a i (ii), in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Submission 2020 150,852 187,855 243,544 288,819 304,276 315,598 319,033 310,713 305,632 291,248 314,638 320,599 307,487 306,766 331,644 365,499
Submission 2019 152,682 186,400 243,292 289,459 305,085 316,427 319,258 310,547 304,170 286,922 313,516 321,015 307,488 305,071 330,738 367,231
absolute change -1,830 1,455 252 -640 -809 -829 -224 167 1,462 4,326 1,122 -416 -0,79 1,695 907 -1,732
relative change -1.20% 0.78% 0.10% -0.22% -0.27% -0.26% -0.07% 0.05% 0.48% 1.51% 0.36% -0.13% -0.0003% 0.56% 0.27% -0.47%

In parallel, the majority of country-specific emission factors has been revised within TREMOD AV based on information available from the 2019 EMEP/EEA Guidebook [4] and Eurocontrol's AEM model [5].

Table 4: Revised country-specific emission-factors, in [kg/TJ]
NMVOC
Submission 2020 13.4 9.5 5.9 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.5 4.5
Submission 2019 13.5 9.0 5.6 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.5
absolute change -0.05 0.48 0.36 0.24 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.26 0.23 0.14 0.19 0.02 0.00
relative change -0.39% 5.36% 6.42% 4.62% 5.31% 5.98% 6.26% 5.24% 5.37% 5.27% 5.75% 5.23% 3.18% 4.18% 0.39% 0.07%
NOx
Submission 2020 308 313 319 330 331 334 335 339 346 349 354 354 354 354 359 361
Submission 2019 313 317 329 335 336 339 341 344 350 352 359 364 368 374 378 380
absolute change -5.05 -3.50 -9.68 -5.31 -5.00 -5.19 -5.11 -4.91 -4.69 -3.15 -5.07 -10.16 -13.33 -19.30 -19.11 -19.37
relative change -1.61% -1.10% -2.94% -1.58% -1.49% -1.53% -1.50% -1.43% -1.34% -0.89% -1.41% -2.79% -3.62% -5.17% -5.05% -5.09%
Sulphur oxides - SOx
Submission 2020 19.7 19.5 19.5 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6
Submission 2019 25.1 15.2 8.5 6.3 5.9 5.5 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
absolute change -5.45 4.30 11.08 13.28 13.71 14.13 14.55 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98
relative change -21.7% 28.2% 131% 209% 232% 257% 287% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322%
Black carbon - BC
Submission 2020 1.91 2.01 2.08 1.97 1.95 1.93 1.90 1.88 1.86 1.84 1.83 1.82 1.78 1.79 1.79 1.80
Submission 2019 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.23
absolute change -0.32 -0.22 -0.15 -0.26 -0.28 -0.30 -0.33 -0.36 -0.37 -0.39 -0.40 -0.42 -0.45 -0.44 -0.44 -0.44
relative change -14.3% -9.8% -6.8% -11.6% -12.5% -13.5% -15.0% -16.0% -16.7% -17.5% -18.0% -18.7% -20.1% -19.9% -19.7% -19.5%
Particulate matter - PM
Submission 2020 3.98 4.19 4.33 4.11 4.07 4.02 3.95 3.91 3.87 3.84 3.81 3.78 3.72 3.72 3.74 3.74
Submission 2019 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65
absolute change -0.67 -0.46 -0.32 -0.54 -0.58 -0.63 -0.70 -0.74 -0.78 -0.81 -0.84 -0.87 -0.93 -0.93 -0.91 -0.91
relative change -14.3% -9.8% -6.8% -11.6% -12.5% -13.5% -15.0% -16.0% -16.7% -17.5% -18.0% -18.7% -20.1% -19.9% -19.7% -19.5%
Carbon monoxide - CO
Submission 2020 71.0 60.3 44.9 40.0 39.2 38.3 37.4 36.4 35.9 35.6 35.5 35.6 35.3 35.5 33.5 33.6
Submission 2019 72.0 59.8 44.3 40.2 39.2 38.2 37.1 36.8 36.4 36.2 35.8 35.6 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.5
absolute change -0.97 0.48 0.55 -0.21 0.00 0.17 0.32 -0.41 -0.47 -0.59 -0.28 -0.05 0.19 0.40 -1.55 -1.90
relative change -1.35% 0.81% 1.24% -0.53% 0.01% 0.44% 0.87% -1.11% -1.29% -1.63% -0.78% -0.14% 0.54% 1.15% -4.42% -5.35%

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

For information on planned improvements, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.


Bibliography
1. Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S. (2010): Entwicklung eines eigenständigen Modells zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs (TREMOD-AV) : Endbericht. Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/entwicklung-eines-modells-zur-berechnung; Berlin & Heidelberg, 2012.
2. Knörr et al. (2019c): Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S.: TREMOD Aviation (TREMOD AV) 2019 - Revision des Modells zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs (TREMOD-AV). Heidelberg, Berlin: Ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH & Öko-Institut e.V., Berlin & Heidelberg, 2019.
3. Gores (2019): Inventartool zum deutschen Flugverkehrsinventar 1990-2018, im Rahmen der Aktualisierung des Moduls TREMOD-AV im Transportemissionsmodell TREMOD, Berlin, 2019.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2019: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019 - Copenhagen, 2019
5. Eurocontrol (2019): Advanced emission model (AEM); https://www.eurocontrol.int/model/advanced-emission-model; 2019
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