1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation: LTO

Last updated on 19 Mar 2019 13:05 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.a i (i) International Civil Aviation: LTO T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

In NFR category 1.A.3.a i (i) - Internatinal Civil Aviation: LTO emissions during LTO stage (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) are reported.
In the following, information on sub-category specific AD, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.

Method

Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV as described in the superordinate chapter.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
12,419 17,315 20,352 23,432 24,422 25,597 26,193 25,189 26,243 27,570 27,317 26,897 27,305 28,246 29,301 30,226

source: Knörr et al. (2018c) & Gores (2018) [2], [3]

Emission factors

All country specific emission factors used for emission reporting were basically ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 (Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S. (2010)) [1] and have since then been compiled, revised and maintained in TREMOD AV [2].

For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 2: Country-specific emission factors, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 71.8 39.0 32.3 26.7 26.5 25.7 25.2 24.2 23.2 23.3 22.5 21.9 21.5 20.8 20.5 20.8
NOx 302 310 307 322 324 328 330 336 344 345 349 353 355 358 362 363
SOx 25.1 15.2 8.46 6.34 5.92 5.50 5.07 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65 4.65
PM1 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16
BC2 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04
CO 245 222 235 224 220 215 212 208 202 201 197 194 191 188 184 184

source: Knörr et al. (2018c) & Gores (2018) [2], [3]
1 EF(TSP) also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
2 estimated via a f-BC of 0.48 as provided in [3], Chapter: 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, page 49: "Conclusion".

NOTE: For the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, no clear indication is available, whether or not condensables are included.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation - LTO is no key category.

Recalculations

As mentioned in the superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a, the LTO fuel consumptions applied in TREMOD AV have been adapted to the information available from the July 2017 version of the EMERP/EEA Guiebook 2016. [4]

Hence, the percentual annual shares of kerosene consumed during L/TO for international flights have been re-estimated…

Table 3: Revised percentual share of kerosene consumed during L/TO for international flights, in %
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Submission 2019 7.52 8.50 7.72 7.49 7.41 7.48 7.58 7.50 7.94 8.77 8.01 7.73 8.16 8.47 8.14
Submission 2018 8.88 9.90 8.89 8.64 8.58 8.66 8.77 8.68 9.14 10.11 9.23 8.92 9.43 9.80 9.35
absolute change -1.36 -1.40 -1.17 -1.15 -1.17 -1.18 -1.19 -1.18 -1.20 -1.34 -1.22 -1.19 -1.27 -1.32 -1.21
relative change -15.3% -14.1% -13.2% -13.3% -13.6% -13.6% -13.6% -13.6% -13.1% -13.2% -13.2% -13.4% -13.5% -13.5% -13.0%

… and the amounts of kerosene allocated to sub-category 1.A.3.a i (i) were revised accordingly:

Table 4: Revised kerosene usage in 1.A.3.a i (i), in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Submission 2019 12,419 17,315 20,352 23,432 24,422 25,597 26,193 25,189 26,243 27,570 27,317 26,897 27,305 28,246 29,301
Submission 2018 14,495 19,930 23,190 26,795 28,015 29,359 30,037 28,888 29,932 31,475 31,213 30,812 31,295 32,384 33,403
absolute change -2,076 -2,615 -2,838 -3,363 -3,593 -3,763 -3,844 -3,699 -3,688 -3,905 -3,895 -3,915 -3,990 -4,138 -4,103
relative change -14.3% -13.1% -12.2% -12.6% -12.8% -12.8% -12.8% -12.8% -12.3% -12.4% -12.5% -12.7% -12.7% -12.8% -12.3%

Furthermore, several country-specific emission factor values have been revised within TREMOD AV:

Table 5: Revised country-specific emission factors
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Non-methane volatile organic compounds - NMVOC
Submission 2019 71.82 39.04 32.32 26.72 26.46 25.72 25.21 24.19 23.19 23.28 22.53 21.91 21.47 20.78 20.55
Submission 2018 73.08 71.97 46.60 33.48 32.20 30.09 29.85 26.43 23.29 23.95 22.86 20.42 19.07 18.11 17.58
absolute change -1.26 -32.93 -14.28 -6.76 -5.74 -4.38 -4.64 -2.24 -0.10 -0.67 -0.33 1.50 2.40 2.67 2.97
relative change -1.72% -45.75% -30.65% -20.19% -17.83% -14.55% -15.56% -8.47% -0.42% -2.80% -1.46% 7.34% 12.60% 14.74% 16.89%
Nitrogen oxides - NOx
Submission 2019 302.46 310.33 306.70 322.37 323.79 327.81 329.76 336.12 343.65 344.57 348.73 352.82 355.29 358.27 362.00
Submission 2018 289.44 283.80 283.69 291.76 292.79 295.91 297.71 304.22 310.24 309.97 313.54 318.55 320.85 323.42 325.73
absolute change 13.02 26.54 23.01 30.62 31.00 31.90 32.05 31.90 33.41 34.59 35.19 34.27 34.44 34.85 36.26
relative change 4.50% 9.35% 8.11% 10.49% 10.59% 10.78% 10.76% 10.48% 10.77% 11.16% 11.22% 10.76% 10.73% 10.78% 11.13%
Carbon monoxide - CO
Submission 2019 245.44 221.72 235.18 223.74 220.18 214.83 212.11 207.91 201.67 200.51 197.01 193.72 191.21 187.56 184.42
Submission 2018 274.93 254.27 254.91 239.40 238.78 234.37 234.63 232.97 228.99 229.22 227.30 220.92 217.43 213.11 208.83
absolute change -29.49 -32.55 -19.72 -15.66 -18.60 -19.54 -22.52 -25.07 -27.33 -28.71 -30.29 -27.20 -26.22 -25.55 -24.41
relative change -10.73% -12.80% -7.74% -6.54% -7.79% -8.34% -9.60% -10.76% -11.93% -12.53% -13.33% -12.31% -12.06% -11.99% -11.69%

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

For information on planned improvements, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.


Bibliography
1. Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S. (2010): Entwicklung eines eigenständigen Modells zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs (TREMOD-AV) : Endbericht. Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/entwicklung-eines-modells-zur-berechnung; Berlin & Heidelberg, 2012.
2. Knörr et al. (2018c): Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S.: TREMOD Aviation (TREMOD AV) 2018 - Revision des Modells zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs (TREMOD-AV). Heidelberg, Berlin: Ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH & Öko-Institut e.V., Berlin & Heidelberg, 2018.
3. Gores (2018): Inventartool zum deutschen Flugverkehrsinventar 1990-2017, im Rahmen der Aktualisierung des Moduls TREMOD-AV im Transportemissionsmodell TREMOD, Berlin, 2018.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2017.
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