1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation: LTO

Last updated on 12 Mar 2020 09:16 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.a i (i) International Civil Aviation: LTO T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

In NFR category 1.A.3.a i (i) - Internatinal Civil Aviation: LTO emissions during LTO stage (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) are reported.
In the following, information on sub-category specific AD, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.

Method

Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV as described in the superordinate chapter.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
13,676 15,973 21,785 25,168 26,381 27,295 27,439 26,538 26,256 24,701 27,164 28,075 27,274 27,546 29,875 32,999 34,160

source: Knörr et al. (2019c) & Gores (2019) [2], [3]

Emission factors

All country specific emission factors used for emission reporting were basically ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 (Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S. (2010)) [1] and have since then been compiled, revised and maintained in TREMOD AV [2].

For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 2: Country-specific emission factors, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 56.6 37.1 25.0 22.6 22.8 22.5 22.1 21.3 21.9 21.8 21.8 21.7 21.2 21.9 21.7 22.3 23.0
NOx 283 299 285 307 310 314 316 324 330 333 334 337 343 340 345 347 345
SOx 19.7 19.5 19.5 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6
PM2.5 2.50 2.48 2.48 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.49 2.49 2.49
PM10 2.50 2.48 2.48 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.49 2.49 2.49
TSP 2.50 2.48 2.48 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.49 2.49 2.49
BC 1.20 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20
CO 225 214 209 192 192 188 186 181 186 185 188 187 182 186 182 183 185

source: Knörr et al. (2019c) & Gores (2019) [2], [3]
1 EF(TSP) also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
2 estimated via a f-BC of 0.48 as provided in [3], Chapter: 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, page 49: "Conclusion".

NOTE: For the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, no clear indication is available, whether or not condensables are included.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation - LTO is no key category.

Recalculations

As mentioned in the superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a, the LTO fuel consumptions applied in TREMOD AV have been adapted to the the EMERP/EEA Guidebook 2019. [4]

Hence, the percentual annual shares of kerosene consumed during L/TO for international flights have been re-estimated…

Table 3: Revised percentual share of kerosene consumed during L/TO for international flights, in %
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Submission 2020 8.31 7.84 8.21 8.02 7.98 7.96 7.92 7.87 7.91 7.82 7.95 8.05 8.15 8.24 8.26 8.28
Submission 2019 7.52 8.50 7.72 7.49 7.41 7.48 7.58 7.50 7.94 8.77 8.01 7.73 8.16 8.47 8.14 7.60
absolute change 0.79 -0.66 0.49 0.53 0.57 0.48 0.34 0.37 -0.03 -0.95 -0.07 0.32 -0.01 -0.23 0.13 0.68
relative change 10.5% -7.80% 6.37% 7.03% 7.65% 6.37% 4.45% 4.88% -0.39% -10.8% -0.84% 4.15% -0.10% -2.77% 1.54% 8.89%

… and the amounts of kerosene allocated to sub-category 1.A.3.a i (i) were revised accordingly:

Table 4: Revised kerosene usage in 1.A.3.a i (i), in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Submission 2020 13,676 15,973 21,785 25,168 26,381 27,295 27,439 26,538 26,256 24,701 27,164 28,075 27,274 27,546 29,875 32,999
Submission 2019 12,419 17,315 20,352 23,432 24,422 25,597 26,193 25,189 26,243 27,570 27,317 26,897 27,305 28,246 29,301 30,226
absolute change 1,257 -1,342 1,434 1,736 1,959 1,699 1,246 1,349 13 -2,870 -154 1,178 -31 -700 575 2,773
relative change 10.1% -7.75% 7.05% 7.41% 8.02% 6.64% 4.76% 5.36% 0.05% -10.4% -0.56% 4.38% -0.11% -2.48% 1.96% 9.17%

In parallel, the majority of country-specific emission factors has been revised within TREMOD AV based on information available from the 2019 EMEP/EEA Guidebook [4] and Eurocontrol's AEM model [5].
Here, among others, the EF for SO2 from jet kerosene has been replaced by new and more reliable data showing no sulphur reduction since 1990.

Table 5: Revised country-specific emission factors
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Non-methane volatile organic compounds - NMVOC
Submission 2020 56.6 37.1 25.0 22.6 22.8 22.5 22.1 21.3 21.9 21.8 21.8 21.7 21.2 21.9 21.7 22.3
Submission 2019 71.8 39.0 32.3 26.7 26.5 25.7 25.2 24.2 23.2 23.3 22.5 21.9 21.5 20.8 20.5 20.8
absolute change -15.2 -1.91 -7.35 -4.15 -3.65 -3.19 -3.10 -2.90 -1.31 -1.48 -0.77 -0.19 -0.23 1.17 1.12 1.50
relative change -21.2% -4.9% -22.7% -15.5% -13.8% -12.4% -12.3% -12.0% -5.63% -6.37% -3.42% -0.87% -1.08% 5.62% 5.45% 7.20%
Nitrogen oxides - NOx
Submission 2020 283 299 285 307 310 314 316 324 330 333 334 337 343 340 345 347
Submission 2019 302 310 307 322 324 328 330 336 344 345 349 353 355 358 362 363
absolute change -19.0 -10.8 -21.4 -15.1 -13.8 -13.5 -13.5 -12.5 -13.9 -11.6 -14.3 -15.6 -11.9 -18.0 -16.7 -16.7
relative change -6.28% -3.50% -6.99% -4.67% -4.27% -4.11% -4.09% -3.73% -4.04% -3.35% -4.11% -4.42% -3.35% -5.02% -4.62% -4.59%
Sulphur oxides - SOx
Submission 2020 19.7 19.5 19.5 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6
Submission 2019 25.1 15.2 8.5 6.3 5.9 5.5 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
absolute change -5.45 4.30 11.08 13.28 13.71 14.13 14.55 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98 14.98
relative change -21.7% 28.2% 131% 209% 232% 257% 287% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322% 322%
Particulate Matter - PM (PM2.5 = PM10 = TSP)
Submission 2020 2.50 2.48 2.48 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.49 2.49
Submission 2019 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16 2.16
absolute change 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34
relative change 15.9% 15.1% 15.1% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.6% 15.6%
Black Carbon - BC
Submission 2020 1.20 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20
Submission 2019 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04
absolute change 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16
relative change 15.9% 15.1% 15.1% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.7% 15.6% 15.6%
Carbon monoxide - CO
Submission 2020 225 214 209 192 192 188 186 181 186 185 188 187 182 186 182 183
Submission 2019 245 222 235 224 220 215 212 208 202 201 197 194 191 188 184 184
absolute change -20.1 -8.0 -26.5 -31.5 -28.0 -27.3 -25.8 -26.4 -15.5 -15.2 -9.07 -6.71 -9.32 -1.36 -2.21 -0.68
relative change -8.20% -3.59% -11.2% -14.1% -12.7% -12.7% -12.2% -12.7% -7.70% -7.58% -4.60% -3.46% -4.87% -0.73% -1.20% -0.37%

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

For information on planned improvements, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.


Bibliography
1. Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S. (2010): Entwicklung eines eigenständigen Modells zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs (TREMOD-AV) : Endbericht. Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/entwicklung-eines-modells-zur-berechnung; Berlin & Heidelberg, 2012.
2. Knörr et al. (2019c): Knörr, W., Schacht, A., & Gores, S.: TREMOD Aviation (TREMOD AV) 2019 - Revision des Modells zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs (TREMOD-AV). Heidelberg, Berlin: Ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH & Öko-Institut e.V., Berlin & Heidelberg, 2019.
3. Gores (2019): Inventartool zum deutschen Flugverkehrsinventar 1990-2018, im Rahmen der Aktualisierung des Moduls TREMOD-AV im Transportemissionsmodell TREMOD, Berlin, 2019.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2019: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019, https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-a-aviation/view; Copenhagen, 2019.
5. Eurocontrol (2019): Advanced emission model (AEM); https://www.eurocontrol.int/model/advanced-emission-model; 2019
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