1.A.5.b i - Emissions from Military Ground Vehicles

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 09:25 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.5.b i - Other, Mobile (including Military) emissions from military ground-vehicles are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.5.b i Other: Military - Mobile Combustion: Land-based T1, T2 NS CS, D see superordinate chapter

Method

Activity data

Basically, all fuel consumption in military vehicles is included in the primary acitivity data provided by the National Energy Balances (NEB) (AGEB, 2017).

As the NEB does not provide specific data for military use, the following additional sources are used:

For the years as of 1995, the official mineral-oil data of the Federal Republic of Germany (Amtliche Mineralöldaten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), prepared by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA), are used (BAFA, 2017) [1]. Provided in units of [1000 t], these amounts have to be converted into [TJ] on the basis of the relevant net calorific values given by [2].

As the official mineral-oil data does not distinguish into fossil and biofuels but does provide amounts for inland deliveries of total diesel and gasoline fuels, no data on the consumption of biodiesel and bioethanol is available directly at the moment. Therefore, activity data for biofuels used in military vehicles are calculated by applying Germany's official annual biofuel shares to the named total deliveries (see also: info on EF).

Table 1: Annual fuel deliveries to the military for ground-vehicles and machinery, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel Oil 15,037 8,001 1,364 3,366 1,872 1,825 1,201 1,003 990 622 972 681 683 583 582
Gasoline 21,508 9,800 7,477 6,857 6,128 4,789 4,955 4,907 4,862 4,695 4,175 4,092 3,695 3,342 3,009
Biodiesel 0 0 0 74 55 82 59 69 64 41 63 39 41 32 31
Bioethanol 0 0 0 47 88 65 95 140 188 192 185 175 161 145 131
TOTAL 36,545 17,801 8,841 10,343 8,143 6,760 6,310 6,119 6,103 5,551 5,395 4,988 4,580 4,102 3,752

Emission factors

Table 2: Annual country-specific emission factors 1, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel fuels
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 316 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274
NOx 1,195 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360
SOx 125 61 14 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
PM 2 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
BC NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
CO 515 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350
Gasoline fuels
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 594 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373
NOx 682 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725
SOx 12 8 3 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
PM 2 3.63 3.55 3.13 2.66 2.66 2.51 2.39 2.27 2.14 2.09 2.03 1.97 1.91 1.91 1.91
TSP - leaded fuel 2.46 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
BC NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
CO 4,199 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010
Pb - leaded fuel 1,538 516 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 Due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil fuels and biofuels.
2 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from the July 2017 version of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4] for road vehicles (chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv Passenger cars, light commercial trucks, heavy-duty vehicles including buses and motor cycles; page: 92 ff). Regarding heavy metals, separate tier1 default EFs are provided there in tables 3.77 and 3.78 for emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear as well as lubricant co-incineration. Heavy-metal emissions from lubricants (as far as not used in 2-stroke mix) are reported under NFR 2.G as emissions from product use.
(Note: Until submission 2017, the EMEP/EEA default EFs provided for NRMM were used in the German inventory. As these EFs do not differentiate between fuel combustion and lubricant co-incineration, the inventory compiler decided to apply the more specific EFs from road transport to NRMM in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii and c ii and 1.A.5.b, too.)

Table 3: Tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.0012 0.123 0.0023 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1,788 1.62
Biodiesel 1 0.013 0.0013 0.142 0.0027 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2,062 1.62
Gasoline fuels 0.037 0.0046 0.20 0.0068 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758 919 919 90 204 2,131 2.76

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additional emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [5] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

Discussion of emission trends

This sub-category is not considered separately in the key category analysis.

Due to the application of very several tier1 emission factors, most emission trends reported for this sub-category only reflect the trend in fuel deliveries.
Therefore, the fuel-consumption dependend trends in emission estimates are only influenced by the annual fuel mix.

Here, for sulphur dioxide, this consumption-based falling trend is intensified by the impact of fuel-sulphur legislation.

Over-all particulate matter emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption.
Here, until 1997, the emission values reported for total suspended particles (TSP) are slightly higher than those reported for PM2.5 and PM10 due to the additional TSP emissions from leaded gasoline that was banned in 1997.

Recalculations

Activity Data

Diesel oil consumption was adapted to more detailed statistical data for all years as of 2004. The activity data for biodiesel was revised accordingly.
For 2015, changes result mainly from revised statistical data. Here, the official annual blendingg-rate for biodiesel has been revised, too.

Table 4: Revised fuel consumption data for diesel fuels 2004-2015, in terajoules
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
NFR TOTAL
Submission 2018 6,767 10,343 8,143 6,760 6,310 6,119 6,103 5,551 5,395 4,988 4,580 4,102
Submission 2017 6,768 10,353 8,151 6,771 6,318 6,128 6,112 5,556 5,404 4,993 4,591 4,206
absolute change -1.11 -9.83 -7.29 -10.91 -7.95 -9.27 -8.61 -5.47 -8.49 -5.29 -10.70 -103.89
relative change -0.02% -0.09% -0.09% -0.16% -0.13% -0.15% -0.14% -0.10% -0.16% -0.11% -0.23% -2.47%
thereof: Diesel Oil
Submission 2018 970 3.366 1.872 1.825 1.201 1.003 990 622 972 681 683 583
Submission 2017 971 3.375 1.879 1.835 1.208 1.011 998 627 980 686 693 587
absolute change -1.10 -9.62 -7.08 -10.44 -7.58 -8.67 -8.09 -5.14 -7.97 -5.00 -10.00 -3.78
relative change -0.11% -0.28% -0.38% -0.57% -0.63% -0.86% -0.81% -0.82% -0.81% -0.73% -1.44% -0.64%
thereof: Biodiesel
Submission 2018 8 74 55 82 59 69 64 41 63 39 41 32
Submission 2017 8 74 55 82 60 70 65 41 64 40 42 32
absolute change -0.01 -0.21 -0.21 -0.47 -0.37 -0.60 -0.52 -0.34 -0.52 -0.29 -0.61 -0.40
relative change -0.11% -0.28% -0.38% -0.57% -0.63% -0.86% -0.81% -0.82% -0.81% -0.73% -1.44% -1.24%
Table 5: Revised fuel consumption data for gasoline and bio-ethanol 2015, in terajoules
Gasoline Bio-Ethanol
Submission 2018 3,342 145
Submission 2018 3,438 149
absolute change -96 -4
relative change -2.78% -2.78%

Emission factors

The emission factors for heavy metals applied to land-based military vehicles and machinery have been replaced with the revised EF provided for NFRs 1.A.3.bi-iv within the EMEP Guidebook 2016 (July 2017 version).
Here, separate EFs for heavy-metal exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear on the one hand and from co-incinerated lubricants on the other hand are presented.

In addition, the tier1 heavy metal EF for biodiesel have been re-estimated based on this fuel's NCV. (see also: Table 7)

Table 6: Revised heavy-metal emission factors, in g/TJ
As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn
Diesel Oil
Submission 2018 0.002 0.001 0.198 0.133 0.123 0.005 0.012 0.002 0.419
Submission 2017 0.002 0.233 1.164 39.572 0.123 1.629 1.213 0.233 23.277
absolute change 0.000 -0.232 -0.966 -39.439 0.000 -1.625 -1.201 -0.230 -22.858
relative change 0.00% -99.50% -83.00% -99.66% 0.00% -99.71% -99.04% -99.00% -98.20%
Biodiesel 1
Submission 2018 0.0027 0.001 0.228 0.153 0.142 0.005 0.013 0.003 0.483
Submission 2017 0.0023 0.233 1.164 39.572 0.123 1.629 1.213 0.233 23.277
absolute change 0.0004 -0.231 -0.936 -39.419 0.019 -1.624 -1.199 -0.230 -22.794
relative change 15.35% -99.42% -80.39% -99.61% 15.35% -99.67% -98.89% -98.85% -97.92%
Gasoline fuels
Submission 2018 0.007 0.005 0.145 0.133 0.200 0.053 0.037 0.005 0.758
Submission 2017 0.007 0.230 1.148 39.042 0.200 1.608 0.762 0.230 22.966
absolute change 0.000 -0.225 -1.004 -38.909 0.000 -1.555 -0.726 -0.225 -22.208
relative change 0.00% -98.00% -87.40% -99.66% 0.00% -96.71% -95.18% -98.00% -96.70%

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

Although the EMEP Guidebook gives no clear instruction, heavy-metal emissions from the unintentional co-incineration of lubricants in land-based military vehicles and machinery are allocated under NFR 2.G - Other product use.

Futhermore, the tier1 EF for PAH exhaust emissions from biodiesel combustion were re-estimated to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel which is 15 per cent below the NCV of fossil diesel oil:

Table 7: Re-estimated PAH emission factors for biodiesel, in mg/TJ
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4
Submission 2018 806 1,343 924 212 3,284
Submission 2017 698 1,164 801 184 2,847
absolute change 107 179 123 28 437
relative change 15% 15% 15% 15% 15%

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

Given the limited quality of the emission factors applied, the inventory compiler will check a possible revision at least for the main pollutants.


Bibliography
1. BAFA, 2017: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2016_dezember.xlsx?__blob=publicationFile&v=6, Eschborn, 2017.
2. AGEB, 2017b: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Daten - Sondertabellen - Heizwerte der Energieträger und Faktoren für die Umrechnung von spezifischen Mengeneinheiten in Wärmeinheiten (2000-2015); URL: URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/index.php?article_id=29&fileName=heizwerte2005bis2015.pdf, Köln & Berlin, 2017.
3. ifeu, 2017b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 360 16 018, Heidelberg, 2017.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008, URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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