1.A.5.b i - Emissions from Military Ground Vehicles

Last updated on 16 Mar 2020 10:05 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.5.b i - Other, Mobile (including Military) emissions from military ground-vehicles are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.5.b i Other: Military - Mobile Combustion: Land-based T1, T2 NS CS, D see superordinate chapter

Method

Activity data

Basically, all fuel consumption in military vehicles is included in the primary acitivity data provided by the National Energy Balances (NEB) (AGEB, 2019).

As the NEB does not provide specific data for military use, the following additional sources are used:

For the years as of 1995, the official mineral-oil data of the Federal Republic of Germany (Amtliche Mineralöldaten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), prepared by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA), are used (BAFA, 2019) [1]. Provided in units of [1,000 t], these amounts have to be converted into [TJ] on the basis of the relevant net calorific values given by [2].

As the official mineral-oil data does not distinguish into fossil and biofuels but does provide amounts for inland deliveries of total diesel and gasoline fuels, no data on the consumption of biodiesel and bioethanol is available directly at the moment. Therefore, activity data for biofuels used in military vehicles are calculated by applying Germany's official annual biofuel shares to the named total deliveries (see also: info on EF).

Table 1: Annual fuel deliveries to the military for ground-vehicles and machinery, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel Oil 15,037 8,001 1,364 3,366 990 622 972 681 683 580 578 415 279
Biodiesel 0 0 0 74 64 41 63 39 41 31 30 22 16
Gasoline 21,508 9,800 7,477 6,857 4,862 4,696 4,175 4,092 3,695 3,342 3,009 2,502 2,341
Biogasoline 0 0 0 47 188 192 185 175 161 145 131 107 105
Ʃ 1.A.5.b i 36,545 17,801 8,841 10,343 6,103 5,551 5,395 4,988 4,580 4,099 3,748 3,046 2,741

Emission factors

Table 2: Annual country-specific emission factors1, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel fuels
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 316 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274
NOx 1,195 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360 1,360
SOx 125 60.5 14.0 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
PM2 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
BC3 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0
CO 515 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350
Gasoline fuels
NH3 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
NMVOC 594 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373 373
NOx 682 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725 725
SOx 11.8 8.30 3.20 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
PM2 3.63 3.55 3.13 2.66 2.66 2.51 2.39 2.27 2.14 2.09 2.03 1.97 1.91 1.91 1.91 1.91 1.91
BC3 0.44 0.43 0.38 0.32 0.32 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
CO 4,199 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010 4,010
TSP4 2.46 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Pb4 1.54 0.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1 Due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil fuels and biofuels.
2 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
3 EF(BC) estimated from tier1 default f-BC values provided in [4], chapter 1.A.3.b, table 3-11 for gasoline passenger cars (f-BC: 0.12) and diesel heavy duty vehicles (f-BC: 0.53)
4 from leaded gasoline (until 1997), based upon country-specific emission factors from [3]

NOTE: With respect to the emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For information on the emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions, please refer to Appendix 2.3 - Heavy Metal (HM) exhaust emissions from mobile sources and Appendix 2.4 - Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exhaust emissions from mobile sources.

Discussion of emission trends

This sub-category is not considered separately in the key category analysis.

Due to the application of very several tier1 emission factors, most emission trends reported for this sub-category only reflect the trend in fuel deliveries.
Therefore, the fuel-consumption dependend trends in emission estimates are only influenced by the annual fuel mix.

Here, for sulphur dioxide, this consumption-based falling trend is intensified by the impact of fuel-sulphur legislation.

Over-all particulate matter emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption.
Here, until 1997, the emission values reported for total suspended particles (TSP) are slightly higher than those reported for PM2.5 and PM10 due to the additional TSP emissions from leaded gasoline that was banned in 1997.

Recalculations

activity data
Table: Revised activity data, in terajoules
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
1.A.5.b i TOTAL
Submission 2020 6,119 6,103 5,551 5,395 4,988 4,580 4,099 3,748 3,046
Submission 2019 6,119 6,103 5,551 5,395 4,988 4,580 4,102 3,752 3,155
absolute change -0.09 0.02 0.11 0.0 0.0 0.0 -3.6 -4.2 -109
relative change -0.001% 0.0004% 0.002% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.09% -0.11% -3.46%
Diesel Oil
Submission 2020 1,003 990 622 972 681 683 580 578 415
Submission 2019 1,003 990 622 972 681 683 583 582 421
absolute change 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -3.50 -4.10 -5.76
relative change 0.002% 0.002% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.60% -0.70% -1.37%
Biodiesel
Submission 2020 69 64 41 63 39 41 31 30 22
Submission 2019 69 64 41 63 39 41 32 31 22
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.19 -0.22 -0.31
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.60% -0.70% -1.37%
Gasoline
Submission 2020 4,907 4,862 4,696 4,175 4,092 3,695 3,342 3,009 2,502
Submission 2019 4,907 4,862 4,695 4,175 4,092 3,695 3,342 3,009 2,605
absolute change -0.11 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.07 -103
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -3.96%
Biogasoline
Submission 2020 140 188 192 185 175 161 145 131 107
Submission 2019 140 188 192 185 175 161 145 131 106
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.12%

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

Given the limited quality of the emission factors applied, the inventory compiler will check a possible revision at least for the main pollutants.


Bibliography
1. BAFA, 2019: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: https://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2017_dezember.html, Eschborn, 2019.
2. AGEB, 2019b: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Daten - Sondertabellen - Heizwerte der Energieträger und Faktoren für die Umrechnung von spezifischen Mengeneinheiten in Wärmeinheiten (2005-2017); URL: https://ag-energiebilanzen.de/#heizwerte2005bis2016, Köln & Berlin, 2019.
3. Knörr et al. (2019b): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F. (2018b): ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery (TREMOD MM) 2019, Heidelberg, 2019
4. EMEP/EEA, 2019: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019; Copenhagen, 2019.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008, URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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