1.A.4.c ii (b) - Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery: Forestry

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 09:09 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii (b) fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from off-road vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry are reported.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.4.c ii (b) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Agriculture T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M see 1.A.4.c ii

Method

Activity data

Primary activity data (PAD) are taken from National Energy Balances (NEBs) line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2017) [1].

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2017) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4. ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD MM (ifeu, 2017b) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 1: Annual contribution of forestry vehicles and mobile machinery to the primary fuel delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel fuels 2.38% 1.34% 2.05% 2.65% 2.67% 2.74% 2.54% 2.56% 2.60% 2.66% 2.51%
Gasoline fuels1 68.5% 40.3% 44.9% 41.6% 36.0% 36.2% 33.7% 33.5% 33.8% 34.1% 32.4%

1 2-stroke only; no 4-stroke gasoline vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry

Table 2: Annual mobile fuel consumption in forestry, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel Oil 2,666 1,311 1,946 2,081 2,174 2,365 2,482 2,260 2,372 2,510 2,700 2,569
Gasoline 0 0 0 18 48 154 164 148 138 153 146 135
Biodiesel 3,093 3,004 3,325 3,018 3,036 1,563 1,425 399 391 421 1,698 1,753
Bioethanol 0 0 0 3 21 60 58 18 17 18 74 76
TOTAL 5,759 4,315 5,271 5,120 5,278 4,144 4,130 2,825 2,918 3,103 4,618 4,533

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
For all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annually changing values computed within TREMOD MM (ifeu, 2017b) [3] are used, representing the development of mitigation technologies and th effect of fuel-quality legislation.

Table 3: Annual coutry-specific emission factors from TREMOD MM 1
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Gasoline fuels
NH3 0.075 0.083 0.083 0.086 0.087 0.087 0.087 0.087 0.087 0.088 0.091 0.092 0.092 0.092 0.092
NMVOC 2 5.520 4.858 4.858 5.028 5.087 5.087 5.087 5.087 5.087 4.516 3.332 2.717 2.717 2.717 2.717
NMVOC 3 3 6 5 5 4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
NOx 43 50 50 77 86 86 86 86 86 79 63 55 55 55 55
SOx 10 8 3 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
BC 5 5.09 3.73 3.73 3.86 3.91 3.91 3.91 3.91 3.91 3.96 4.08 4.13 4.13 4.13 4.13
PM 4 101.75 74.62 74.62 77.24 78.14 78.14 78.14 78.14 78.14 79.24 81.50 82.68 82.68 82.68 82.68
TSP 6 2.35 0.82
CO 16,017 14,095 14,095 14,589 14,761 14,761 14,761 14,761 14,761 14,967 15,395 15,617 15,617 15,617 15,617
Pb 7 1,471 516
Diesel fuels
NH3 0.164 0.169 0.174 0.176 0.177 0.177 0.177 0.177 0.177 0.177 0.177 0.177 0.177 0.177 0.177
NMVOC 191 157 130 80 71 64 57 51 46 42 39 35 31 28 25
NOx 982 1,053 1,071 834 774 715 655 597 543 494 451 412 378 343 304
SOx 80 61 14 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
BC 3 85 61 42 28 26 24 23 22 22 21 20 19 18 16 14
PM 2 155 112 76 45 41 38 35 32 30 29 27 25 23 21 18
CO 689 619 554 395 367 341 319 299 282 269 258 252 249 248 249

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 from fuel combustion
3 from gasoline evaporation
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 estimated via a f-BC 0.05 as provided in [4], Chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road, note to Table 3-1: Tier 1 emission factors for off-road machinery
6 TSP from leaded gasoline (until 1997)
7 Pb from leaded gasoline (until 1997)

For tier1 default values applied to NRMM in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii and c ii as well as 1.A.5.b for emissions of heavy metals and POPs, please refer to the superordinate chapter linked above.
(Note: For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additonal emissions are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].)

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

Recalculations

Activity Data:

Within TREMOD-MM, the percental contribution of forestry vehicles and mobile machinery to the primary fuel deliveries data provided in NEB line 67 were revised for diesel fuels for all years as of 1997:

Table 4: Revised annual contribution 1997-2015
1997 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel fuels
Submission 2018 0.014 0.020 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.025 0.026 0.026 0.027
Submission 2017 0.014 0.021 0.027 0.027 0.026 0.025 0.026 0.026 0.026
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001
relative change -0.05% -0.16% -0.28% 0.25% 3.61% 0.21% -0.03% 0.47% 3.99%
Gasoline fuels
Submission 2018 0.685 0.359 0.400 0.399 0.407 0.416 0.416 0.474 0.380
Submission 2017 0.685 0.359 0.400 0.399 0.407 0.416 0.416 0.474 0.380
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

This revision results in re-calculated activity data for the same years:

Table 5: Revised annual mobile fuel consumption in forestry, 1997-2015, in terajoules
1997 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Submission 2017 4,289 5,271 5,278 4,144 4,130 2,825 2,918 3,103 4,618
Submission 2016 4,290 5,274 5,284 4,137 3,959 2,817 2,916 3,082 3,185
absolute change -1 -3 -6 7 170 8 2 20 1,434
relative change -0.02% -0.06% -0.11% 0.16% 4.12% 0.27% 0.06% 0.65% 31.05%

For information on the impacts on emission estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
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2. BAFA, 2017: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2016_dezember.xlsx?__blob=publicationFile&v=6, Eschborn, 2017.
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6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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