1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-Road Vehicles and Other Machinery

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 09:09 (cf. Authors)

chainsaw.png

Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from off-road vehicles and machinery used in agriculture and forestry are reported seperately.

traktor.PNG
NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.4.c ii Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-Road Vehicles and Other Machinery T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M L & T: PM2.5 & PM10, BC | L: NOx
including mobile sources sub-categories
1.A.4.c ii (a) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Agriculture T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M -
1.A.4.c ii (b) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Forestry T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M -

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2017) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2017) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and commercial/institutional used off-road vehicles (1.A.4.a ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD MM (ifeu, 2017b) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

To provide more specific information on mobile sources in agriculture and forestry, the inventory compiler further devides NFR sector 1.A.4.c ii into 1.A.4.c ii (i) - NRMM in agriculture in and 1.A.4.c ii (ii) - NRMM in forestry.

Table 2: Annual percentual contribution of NFR 1.A.4.c ii to the primary fuel delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel fuels
1.A.4.c ii (i) 48% 47% 47% 50% 49% 50% 50% 50% 51% 51% 51% 50% 50% 51% 51%
1.A.4.c ii (ii) 2% 1% 2% 3% 3% 4% 3% 2% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3%
Gasoline fuels
1.A.4.c ii (ii) 69% 40% 45% 42% 42% 47% 38% 34% 36% 36% 34% 34% 34% 34% 32%

source: own estimations based on TREMOD MM [3]
1 no gasoline used in agriculatural vehicles and mobile machinery
2 no 4-stroke gasoline vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry

Table 3: Annual mobile fuel consumption in agriculture and forestry, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel Oil 56,808 46,985 46,460 44,359 43,181 42,985 44,262 44,329 46,967 47,423 48,401 47,308 49,147 51,193 54,109 54,855
Gasoline 3,093 3,004 3,325 3,018 3,036 3,064 3,487 2,759 1,509 1,563 1,425 399 391 421 1,698 1,753
Biodiesel 0 0 0 382 944 1,252 1,977 2,191 3,234 3,094 3,188 3,101 2,859 3,120 2,925 2,878
Bioethanol 0 0 0 3 21 44 47 53 43 60 58 18 17 18 74 76
TOTAL 59,900 49,989 49,784 47,762 47,182 47,345 49,773 49,332 51,753 52,141 53,072 50,826 52,413 54,753 58,807 59,562

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.
For Information on the country-specific implied emission factors applied to mobile machinery in agricultur and forestry, please refer to the respective sub-chapters linked above.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from the July 2017 version of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4] for road vehicles (chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv Passenger cars, light commercial trucks, heavy-duty vehicles including buses and motor cycles; page: 92 ff). Regarding heavy metals, separate tier1 default EFs are provided there in tables 3.77 and 3.78 for emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear as well as lubricant co-incineration. Heavy-metal emissions from lubricants (as far as not used in 2-stroke mix) are reported under NFR 2.G as emissions from product use.
(Note: Until submission 2017, the EMEP/EEA default EFs provided for NRMM were used in the German inventory. As these EFs do not differentiate between fuel combustion and lubricant co-incineration, the inventory compiler decided to apply the more specific EFs from road transport to NRMM in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii and c ii as well as 1.A.5.b, too.)

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [5] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

Table 4: Tier1 emission factors for heayv-metal and POP exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.0012 0.123 0.0023 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1.788 1.62
Biodiesel 0.013 0.0013 0.142 0.0027 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2.062 1.62
2-stroke mix1 0.051 2.0990 0.196 0.0068 8.961 357.449 14.699 2.090 207.527 919 919 90 204 2.131 57.50

1 tier1 EFs for 2-stroke mix are estimated as 1/50 of the tier1 EF for co-incinerated lubricants + 49/50 of the corresponding EF for gasoline as provided in the July 2017 version of [4].

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

Due to the separate reporting of mobile fuel combustion in agriculture and forestry as well as the differentiation into 2- and 4-stroke gasoline engines, a broad set of emission factors is applied here. For further information on the tier1 default EF as well as annual IEF modelled in TREMOD-MM please refer to the sub-chapters linked above. Here, as no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil and gasoline are applied to biodiesel and bio-ethanol, too.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.c ii is key source for emissions of NOx, BC, PM2.5 and PM10.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (Black Carbon, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Recalculations

Compared to the fundamental revision carried out with submission 2017, activity data and emission factors changed only slightly.

Activity data

As fuel consumption data is calculated from primary NEB data via annual sectoral shares from TREMOD MM [3], any revisions in these shares impacts the AD estimates.
The following table gives an overview of the changes in annual shares resulting from the routine revision of TREMOD MM.

Here, additional changes for the more recent years and especially for 2013 result from revisions in the primary fuel deliveries data as provided in the National Energy Balances.

Table 5: Revised annual contribution of sub-sectors 1.A.4.c ii (i) and 1.A.4.c ii (ii) to the over-all fuel data provided in NEB line 67, 1997-2015
1997 1998 1999 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
1.A.4.c ii (i) - diesel fuels
Submission 2018 0.481 0.482 0.467 0.468 0.501 0.490 0.497 0.498 0.501 0.509 0.506 0.506 0.505 0.503 0.507
Submission 2017 0.481 0.482 0.468 0.469 0.502 0.492 0.498 0.499 0.503 0.508 0.492 0.505 0.505 0.502 0.503
absolute change 0.000 0.000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 0.001 0.014 0.001 -0.001 0.001 0.004
relative change -0.05% -0.10% -0.14% -0.16% -0.28% -0.32% -0.33% -0.36% -0.39% 0.25% 2.83% 0.12% -0.12% 0.19% 0.86%
1.A.4.c ii (ii) - diesel fuels
Submission 2018 0.014 0.015 0.014 0.020 0.027 0.029 0.036 0.026 0.023 0.027 0.027 0.025 0.026 0.026 0.027
Submission 2017 0.014 0.015 0.014 0.021 0.027 0.029 0.036 0.026 0.023 0.027 0.026 0.025 0.026 0.026 0.026
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001
relative change -0.05% -0.10% -0.14% -0.16% -0.28% -0.32% -0.33% -0.36% -0.39% 0.25% 3.75% 0.21% -0.03% 0.47% 4.16%
1.A.4.c ii (ii) - gasoline fuels
Submission 2018 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685
Submission 2017 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685 0.685
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

These changes in annual shares and in combination with the updated 2015 Energy Balance result in the following changes in sub-sectoral activity data:

Table 6: Revised activity data 1997-2015, in terajoules
1997 1998 1999 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
diesel fuels
Submission 2018 47,731 47,355 47,075 46,460 44,126 44,237 46,239 46,520 50,201 50,518 51,589 50,409 52,006 54,314 57,035
Submission 2017 47,757 47,400 47,139 46,536 44,245 44,373 46,386 46,685 50,393 50,385 50,145 50,344 52,062 54,196 57,254
absolute change -26 -45 -64 -76 -119 -136 -146 -164 -191 133 1,443 65 -56 117 -220
relative change -0.05% -0.10% -0.14% -0.16% -0.27% -0.31% -0.32% -0.35% -0.38% 0.26% 2.88% 0.13% -0.11% 0.22% -0.38%
gasoline fuels
Submission 2018 2,935 2,964 2,717 3,325 3,057 3,108 3,534 2,812 1,552 1,624 1,484 416 407 439 1,772
Submission 2017 2,935 2,964 2,717 3,325 3,057 3,108 3,534 2,812 1,552 1,624 1,409 414 405 432 414
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 75 2 2 7 1,358
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 5.29% 0.57% 0.56% 1.72% 328.47%
1.A.4.c ii - total consumption
Submission 2018 50,666 50,319 49,792 49,784 47,182 47,345 49,773 49,332 51,753 52,141 53,072 50,826 52,413 54,753 58,807
Submission 2017 50,692 50,364 49,856 49,860 47,302 47,481 49,920 49,496 51,944 52,009 51,554 50,758 52,467 54,628 57,668
absolute change -26 -45 -64 -76 -119 -136 -146 -164 -191 133 1,518 67 -54 125 1,139
relative change -0.05% -0.09% -0.13% -0.15% -0.25% -0.29% -0.29% -0.33% -0.37% 0.26% 2.94% 0.13% -0.10% 0.23% 1.97%

Emission factors

For Information on the revision of the annual country-specific emission factors applied to mobile machinery in agricultur and forestry, please refer to the respective sub-chapters linked above.

Much stronger changes occur to the emission factors for heavy metals which have been replaced with the revised EF provided for NFRs 1.A.3.bi-iv within the EMEP Guidebook 2016 (July 2017 version)!
In the Guidebook, separate EFs for heavy-metal exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear on the one hand and from co-incinerated lubricants on the other hand are presented.
Although the EMEP Guidebook gives no clear instruction, HM emissions from the unintended co-incineration of lubricants in vehicles and machinery are allocated under NFR 2.G - Other product use.

Table 7: Revised tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles, in g/TJ
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn
Diesel oil
Submission 2018 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277
absolute change -1.201 -0.232 0.000 0.000 -0.966 -39.439 -1.625 -0.230 -22.858
relative change -99.04% -99.50% 0.00% 0.00% -83.00% -99.66% -99.71% -99.00% -98.20%
Biodiesel 1
Submission 2018 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277
absolute change -1.199 -0.231 0.019 0.000 -0.936 -39.419 -1.624 -0.230 -22.794
relative change -98.89% -99.42% 15.35% 15.35% -80.39% -99.61% -99.67% -98.85% -97.92%
Gasoline fuels - 2-stroke mix used in forestry machinery 2
Submission 2018 0.051 2.099 0.196 0.007 8.961 357 14.7 2.090 207.5
Submission 2017 0.762 0.230 0.200 0.007 1.148 39 1.6 0.230 22.9
absolute change -0.712 1.869 -0.004 0.000 7.812 318 13.1 1.860 184.6
relative change -93.34% 814% -2.00% -2.00% 680% 816% 814% 810% 804%

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2 EF for 2-stroke mix also taking into account the contribution of heavy metals from the lube oil blended to the gasoline fuel

Futhermore, the tier1 EF for PAH exhaust emissions from biodiesel combustion were re-estimated to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel which is 15.35 per cent below the NCV of fossil diesel oil:

Table 8: Re-estimated tier1 PAH exhaust-emission factors, in mg/TJ
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]P PAH 1-4
Submission 2018 806 1,343 924 212 3,284
Submission 2017 698 1,164 801 184 2,847
absolute change 107 179 123 28 437
relative change 15.35% 15.35% 15.35% 15.35% 15.35%

For information on the impacts on emission estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [6]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of TREMOD MM, no specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] and [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2017: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2015.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2017), Köln & Berlin, 2017.
2. BAFA, 2017: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2016_dezember.xlsx?__blob=publicationFile&v=6, Eschborn, 2017.
3. ifeu, 2017b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2017.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License