1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-Road Vehicles and Other Machinery

Last updated on 30 Mar 2020 06:41 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from off-road vehicles and machinery used in agriculture and forestry are reported seperately.

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NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.4.c ii Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-Road Vehicles and Other Machinery T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M L & T: BC | L: NOx, PM2.5, PM10
including mobile sources sub-categories
1.A.4.c ii (a) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Agriculture T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M -
1.A.4.c ii (b) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Forestry T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M -

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2019) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2019) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and commercial/institutional used off-road vehicles (1.A.4.a ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD MM (Knörr et al. (2019b)) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

To provide more specific information on mobile sources in agriculture and forestry, the inventory compiler further devides NFR sector 1.A.4.c ii into 1.A.4.c ii (i) - NRMM in agriculture in and 1.A.4.c ii (ii) - NRMM in forestry.

Table 2: Annual percentual contribution of NFR 1.A.4.c ii to the primary fuel delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel fuels
1.A.4.c ii (i) 48.4% 46.7% 46.8% 50.1% 49.0% 49.7% 49.8% 50.1% 50.9% 50.6% 50.6% 50.5% 50.3% 50.7% 51.0% 51.1% 51.2%
1.A.4.c ii (ii) 2.38% 1.34% 2.05% 2.65% 2.87% 3.60% 2.61% 2.32% 2.67% 2.74% 2.54% 2.56% 2.60% 2.66% 2.51% 2.57% 2.59%
Gasoline fuels
1.A.4.c ii (ii) 68.5% 40.3% 44.9% 41.6% 41.6% 47.4% 38.0% 33.9% 36.0% 36.2% 33.7% 33.5% 33.8% 34.1% 32.4% 32.7% 32.7%

source: own estimations based on Knörr et al. (2019b) [3]
1 no gasoline used in agriculatural vehicles and mobile machinery
2 no 4-stroke gasoline vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry

Table 3: Annual mobile fuel consumption in agriculture and forestry, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel Oil 56,808 46,985 46,460 43,181 42,985 44,262 44,329 46,967 47,423 48,400 47,307 49,146 51,193 54,111 56,349 58,095 54,347
Gasoline 3,093 3,004 3,325 3,036 3,064 3,487 2,759 1,509 1,563 1,425 399 391 421 1,698 1,615 1,631 1,592
Biodiesel 0 0 0 944 1,252 1,977 2,191 3,234 3,076 3,173 3,089 2,846 3,104 2,925 2,960 3,081 2,965
Biogasoline 0 0 0 21 44 47 53 43 60 58 18 17 18 74 70 68 72
Ʃ 1.A.4.c ii 59,900 49,989 49,784 47,183 47,345 49,773 49,332 51,753 52,123 53,056 50,813 52,399 54,736 58,808 60,994 62,876 58,975

Emission factors

The emission factors applied here are of rather different quality:

Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within TREMOD MM [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

For Information on the country-specific implied emission factors applied to mobile machinery in agriculture and forestry, please refer to the respective sub-chapters linked above.

For information on the emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions, please refer to Appendix 2.3 - Heavy Metal (HM) exhaust emissions from mobile sources and Appendix 2.4 - Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exhaust emissions from mobile sources.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.c ii is key source for emissions of NOx, BC, PM2.5 and PM10.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (Black Carbon, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Heavy-matel emissions: Cadmium

As all other heavy-metal and POP emissions, emissions of cadmium for this NFR category are calculated based on default EF from [4].

Here, the extreme steps in emission estimates result from two effects:

(i) the annual amounts of gasoline fuels allocated to NFR 1.A.4.c ii depend on the amounts delivered to the military also covered in NEB line 67. (see superordinate chapter for further information).
This approach results in strong declines in gasoline consumption after 2007 and 2011 followed by an increase after 2014.

Table: Development of gasoline consumption in NFR 1.A.4.c ii, in terajoules
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Gasoline 1,563 1,425 399 391 421 1,698 1,615 1,631 1,592
Biogasoline 60 58 18 17 18 74 70 68 72

(ii) All gasoline fuels allocated to NFR 1.A.4.c ii are used in 2-stroke-engines in forestry equipment. As the 2-stroke fuel also includes lubricant oil, the fuel's heavy metal content is significantly higher than that of 4-stroke gasoline (or diesel fuels).
(see Appendix 2.3 for more information on the reporting of HM emissions.)

Table: Tier1 default emission factors applied to NRMM, in g/TJ
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn
Diesel oil 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419
Biodiesel1 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483
Gasoline fuels - 4-stroke 0.037 0.005 0.200 0.007 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758
Gasoline fuels - 2-stroke2 0.051 2.10 0.196 0.007 8.96 357 14.7 2.09 208
LPG (1.A.4.a ii only) NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2 including the HM of 1:50 lube oil mixed to the gasoline

Hence, emission estimates reported for cadmium are significantly higher for years with higher gasoline use (in 2-stroke enignes).

Recalculations

Revisions in activity data result from slightly adapted NCVs and biofuel shares (2015-2017) as well as the implementation of primary activity data from the now finalised NEB 2017.

Table 6: Revised activity data 2015-2017, in terajoules
2015 2016 2017
diesel fuels
Submission 2020 57,036 59,309 61,176
Submission 2019 57,034 59,306 60,819
absolute change 1.97 2.31 357
relative change 0.003% 0.004% 0.59%
gasoline fuels
Submission 2020 1.772 1.685 1.700
Submission 2019 1.772 1.686 1.970
absolute change -0.03 -0.02 -270
relative change -0.002% -0.001% -13.72%
over-all fuel consumption
Submission 2020 58.808 60,994 62,876
Submission 2019 58.806 60,992 62,790
absolute change 1.94 2.28 86.3
relative change 0.003% 0.004% 0.14%

As, in contrast, all emission factors remain unrevised compared to last year's susbmission, emission estimates for the years as of 2015 change in accordance with the underlying activity data.

For information on the impacts on emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (Knörr et al. (2009)) [6].

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of TREMOD MM, no specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2019: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: https://ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2017.html, (Aufruf: 29.11.2019), Köln & Berlin, 2019.
2. BAFA, 2019: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: https://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2018_dezember.html, Eschborn, 2019.
3. Knörr et al. (2019b): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery (TREMOD MM) 2019, Heidelberg, 2019.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2019: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2019, Copenhagen, 2019.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. Knörr et al. (2009): Knörr, W., Heldstab, J., & Kasser, F.: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland; final report; URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/461/publikationen/3937.pdf, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich, 2009.
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