1.A.4.b ii - Residential: Household and Gardening: Mobile

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 09:07 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.b ii - Residential: Mobile Sources in Households and Gardening fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from combustion engine driven devices such as motor saws and lawn mowers are being reported.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.4.b ii Residential: Household and Gardening: Mobile T1 NS, M CS, D no key category
Lawnmower.PNG

Method

Activity data

Activity data are taken from annual fuel delieveries data provided in line 66: 'Households' of the National Energy Balances (NEB) for Germany (AGEB, 2016) [1].

Table 1: Sources for consumption data in 1.A.4.b ii
Relevant years Data Source
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: Households
since 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 66: Households

Here, given the rare statistics on sold machinery, these activity data is of limited quality only (no annual but cascaded trend).

As the NEB only provides primary activity data for total biomass used in 'households', but does not distinguish into specific biofuels, consumption data for bioethanol used in NFR 1.A.4.b ii are calculated by applying Germany's official annual shares of bioethanol blended to fossil gasoline.

Please note: Data on gasoline used in households as provided in the National Energy Balances represents a "residual item" following the allocation of the majority of this fuel to road and military vehicles.
Here, fuel sales to road vehicles might also include gasoline acquired on filling stations but used for household equipment.

Due to these reasons, activity data for gasoline consumption in households machinery and, hence, several emission estimates show no realistic trend but a stepwise development with significant jumps.

Table 2: Annual over-all fuel deliveries to residential mobile sources, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Gasoline 2,177 2,395 2,395 2,395 2,177 2,177 2,177 3,445 3,379 4,069 3,995 3,720 3,946 4,228 4,313
Bioethanol 0 0 0 16 31 29 42 98 131 167 177 159 172 183 187
TOTAL 2,177 2,395 2,395 2,411 2,208 2,206 2,219 3,543 3,510 4,236 4,172 3,879 4,118 4,411 4,500

These primary activity data can be distributed onto 2- and 4-stroke engines used in households via annual shares from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2016b). [3]

Table 3: Annual shares of 2- and 4-stroke engines
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
2-stroke 72% 50% 34% 31% 30% 29% 29% 28% 27% 27% 26% 25% 25% 24% 24%
4-stroke 28% 50% 66% 69% 70% 71% 71% 72% 73% 73% 74% 75% 75% 76% 76%
SUM 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Table 4: Resulting estimates for fuel consumption in 2- and 4-stroke engines, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
2-stroke engines
Gasoline 1,563 1,204 803 749 660 641 622 954 920 1,084 1,019 923 968 1,027 1,039
Bioethanol 0 0 0 5 10 9 12 27 36 44 45 40 42 45 45
4-stroke engines
Gasoline 614 1,191 1,592 1,646 1,517 1,536 1,555 2,491 2,459 2,985 2,976 2,797 2,978 3,201 3,274
Bioethanol 0 0 0 11 22 21 30 71 95 122 132 120 129 139 142
TOTAL 2,177 2,395 2,395 2,411 2,208 2,206 2,219 3,543 3,510 4,236 4,172 3,879 4,118 4,411 4,500

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
For all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annually changing values computed within TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2017b) [3] are used, representing the development of mitigation technologies and th effect of fuel-quality legislation.

For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additional emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].)

Table 5: Annual country-specific emission factors from TREMOD MM 1, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Gasoline fuels - 4-stroke machinery
NH3 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
NMVOC 2 727 819 809 781 777 774 773 774 774 771 769 768 766 765 764
NMVOC 3 475 1,289 1,604 1,634 1,636 1,636 1,637 1,637 1,632 1,632 1,632 1,632 1,633 1,633 1,633
NOx 51 85 103 108 110 113 116 119 121 124 126 128 130 132 134
SOx 10 8 3 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
PM 4 6.29 5.46 4.85 4.63 4.65 4.70 4.75 4.81 4.87 4.94 5.00 5.06 5.11 5.15 5.19
BC 5 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.26
TSP 6 2.35 0.82
CO 39,998 32,154 28,346 27,235 27,307 27,441 27,615 27,811 28,035 28,317 28,584 28,827 29,042 29,222 29,366
Pb 7 1,471 516
Gasoline fuels - 2-stroke machinery
NH3 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09
NMVOC 2 5,962 5,692 5,537 5,439 5,414 5,395 5,391 5,404 5,372 4,894 3,898 3,270 3,115 2,969 2,835
NMVOC 3 1,387 1,129 510 394 372 347 319 288 290 299 317 329 334 338 342
NOx 24 29 37 54 60 62 62 63 63 62 57 55 56 57 58
SOx 10 8 3 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
PM 4 103 95.79 95.29 95.21 95.48 95.42 95.61 96.07 96.07 98.99 104.93 109.02 110.57 112.02 113.36
BC 5 5 4.79 4.76 4.76 4.77 4.77 4.78 4.80 4.80 4.95 5.25 5.45 5.53 5.60 5.67
TSP 6 2 0.82
CO 25,505 22,501 16,571 15,061 14,654 14,304 13,963 13,645 13,624 13,963 14,734 15,251 15,423 15,593 15,757
Pb 7 1,471 516

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 from fuel combustion
3 from gasoline evaporation
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 estimated via a f-BC 0.05 as provided in [4], Chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road, note to Table 3-1: Tier 1 emission factors for off-road machinery
6 TSP from leaded gasoline (until 1997)
7 Pb from leaded gasoline (until 1997)

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from the July 2017 version of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4] for road vehicles (chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv Passenger cars, light commercial trucks, heavy-duty vehicles including buses and motor cycles; page: 92 ff). Regarding heavy metals, separate tier1 default EFs are provided there in tables 3.77 and 3.78 for emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear as well as lubricant co-incineration. Heavy-metal emissions from lubricants (as far as not used in 2-stroke mix) are reported under NFR 2.G as emissions from product use.
(Note: Until submission 2017, the EMEP/EEA default EFs provided for NRMM were used in the German inventory. As these EFs do not differentiate between fuel combustion and lubricant co-incineration, the inventory compiler decided to apply the more specific EFs from road transport to NRMM in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii and c ii and 1.A.5.b, too.)

The tier1 EF apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] for the German Federal Environment Agency.
For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for gasoline are applied to bioethanol, too.

Table 6: Tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Gasoline fuels - 4-stroke 0.037 0.005 0.200 0.007 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758 919 919 90 204 2.062 3 2.76 4
Gasoline fuels - 2-stroke 0.051 2.10 0.196 0.007 8.96 357 14.7 2.09 208 919 919 90 204 2.131 3 57.50 4

1 tier1 defaults from [4], chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles
2 tier1 defaults from [4], chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road
3 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
4 tier1 values derived from [6]

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.b ii is no key source.

Given the limited quality of gasoline-deliveries data from NEB line 66, the following emission trends are of limited significance only.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Here, as the EF(BC) are estimated via fractions provided in [4], black carbon emissions follow the corresponding emissions of PM2.5.

Recalculations

As all emission factors remain unchanged, recalculations result from the revised 2015 activity data only.

Table 7: Revision of 2015 total inland fuel deliveries for household-related consumption, in terajoules
Submission 2018 4,411
Submission 2017 3,922
absolute change -489
relative change -12,5%

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!).

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned at the moment.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained in biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2017: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2015.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2017), Köln & Berlin, 2017.
2. BAFA, 2017: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2016_dezember.xlsx?__blob=publicationFile&v=6, Eschborn, 2017.
3. ifeu, 2017b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2017.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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