1.A.4.a ii - Commercial / Institutional: Mobile

Last updated on 16 Mar 2020 12:27 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In NFR 1.A.4.a ii - Commercial/institutional: Mobile fuel combustion activities and emissions from commercially and institutionally used mobile sources should be reported.

Within the German inventory, non-road diesel and LPG-driven (forklifters) vehicles used in the commercial and institutional sector are taken into account here.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.4.a.ii Commercial/Institutional: Mobile combustion T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific diesel consumption data are included in the primary fuel-delivery data available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2019) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-deliveries data
through 1994 NEB line 79: 'Households and small consumers'
as of 1995 NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers'

Following the deduction of diesel oil inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2019) [2], the remaining amounts of diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4.a ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from (Knörr et al. (2019b)) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Annual contribution of NFR 1.A.4.a ii to the over-all amounts of diesel oil provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel fuels 6.948% 6.557% 6.644% 7.142% 6.924% 6.975% 6.915% 6.993% 7.018% 6.958% 6.913% 6.848% 6.784% 6.794% 6.792% 6.777% 6.751%

source: (Knörr et al. (2019b)) [3]

As the NEB does not distinguish into specific biofuels, consumption data for biodiesel are calculated by applying Germany's official annual shares of biodiesel blended to fossil diesel oil.

In contrast, for LPG-driven forklifters, specific consumption data is modelled in TREMOD-MM. These amounts are then subtracted from the over-all amount available from NEB line 67 to estimate the amount of LPG used in stationary combustion.

Table 3: Annual fuel consumption, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel Oil 7,774 6,413 6,316 6,028 5,851 5,733 5,795 5,853 6,266 6,213 6,314 6,158 6,348 6,562 6,885 7,153 7,343 6,816
Biodiesel 0 0 0 52 128 167 259 289 432 403 414 402 368 398 372 376 389 372
LPG 2,787 3,450 4,261 4,778 4,894 5,007 5,117 5,224 5,328 5,431 5,441 5,449 5,456 5,462 5,467 5,471 5,474 5,477
Ʃ 1.A.4.a ii 10,561 9,863 10,577 10,858 10,873 10,907 11,171 11,366 12,025 12,047 12,169 12,009 12,172 12,422 12,724 13,000 13,206 12,665

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil are applied to biodiesel, too.

Table 4: Annual country-specific emission factors from TREMOD MM, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel fuels1
NH3 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
NMVOC 247 223 197 140 129 119 110 101 93.3 85.9 78.8 71.5 64.6 58.6 53.8 50.0 46.9
NOx 999 1.026 1.004 835 796 756 716 676 636 597 561 526 493 462 430 399 370
SOx 79.6 60.5 14.0 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
PM2 194 161 134 93.8 86.3 79.7 74.0 69.1 64.6 60.3 56.1 51.6 47.0 42.8 39.2 36.4 34.1
BC3 107 88.7 74.4 55.4 51.8 48.8 46.3 44.2 42.3 40.6 38.7 36.6 34.2 31.9 29.8 28.0 26.5
CO 856 796 726 561 531 502 476 452 429 408 387 368 351 337 328 321 316
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (used especially in fork-lifters)
NH3 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14
NMVOC 150 150 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148
NOx 1,346 1,342 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325
SOx 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
PM2 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
BC3 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13
CO 114 114 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112

source: (Knörr et al. (2018b)) [3]
1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
3 estimated as fraction of PM according to the EMEP/EEA GB 2016

NOTE: With respect to the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additional emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].

For information on the emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions, please refer to Appendix 2.3 - Heavy Metal (HM) exhaust emissions from mobile sources and Appendix 2.4 - Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exhaust emissions from mobile sources.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.a ii is no key source.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Here, as the EF(BC) are estimated via fractions provided in [4], black carbon emissions follow the corresponding emissions of PM2.5.

Recalculations

Activity data hase been revised according to the finalized data from the National Energy Balance 2017.

Table 7: Revised fuel consumption data for 2017, in terajoules
Diesel oil Biodiesel LPG Ʃ
Submission 2020 7,343 389 5,474 13,206
Submission 2019 7,300 387 5,474 13,161
absolute change 42,8 2,25 0,00 45
relative change 0,59% 0,58% 0,00% 0,34%

source: own estimates based on [1] and [3]

With all emission factors remaining unrevised, emission values have only been recalculated for 2017 as shown in the following table for the main pollutants.

Table 8: Recalculated emission estimates 2017, in kilotonnes
NH3 NMVOC NOx PM BC CO
Submission 2020 0.00203 1.195 10.3 0.286 0.217 3.099
Submission 2019 0.00202 1.193 10.3 0.284 0.216 3.084
absolute change 0.00001 0.002 0.02 0.002 0.001 0.014
relative change 0.37% 0.19% 0.17% 0.58% 0.58% 0.47%

For specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (Knörr et al. (2009)) [6].

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the annual routine revision of TREMOD MM, no specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained in biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB (2019): Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: https://ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2017.html, (Aufruf: 29.11.2019), Köln & Berlin, 2019.
2. BAFA (2019): Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: https://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2017_dezember.html, Eschborn, 2019
3. Knörr et al. (2019b): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F. (2019b): ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery (TREMOD MM) 2018, Heidelberg, 2019.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2019: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019, Copenhagen, 2019.
5. Rentz et al. (2008): Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. Knörr et al. (2009): Knörr, W., Heldstab, J., & Kasser, F.: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland; final report; URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/461/publikationen/3937.pdf, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich, 2009.
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