1.A.4.a ii - Commercial / Institutional: Mobile

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 09:06 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In NFR 1.A.4.a ii - Commercial/institutional: Mobile fuel combustion activities and emissions from commercially and institutionally used mobile sources should be reported.

Within the German inventory, non-road diesel and LPG-driven (forklifters) vehicles used in the commercial and institutional sector are taken into account here.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.4.a.ii Commercial/Institutional: Mobile combustion T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific diesel consumption data are included in the primary fuel-delivery data available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2017) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-deliveries data
through 1994 NEB line 79: 'Households and small consumers'
as of 1995 NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers'

Following the deduction of diesel oil inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2017) [2], the remaining amounts of diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4.a ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2017b) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Annual contribution of NFR 1.A.4.a ii to the over-all amounts of diesel oil provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel fuels 6.95% 6.56% 6.64% 7.02% 7.14% 6.92% 6.97% 6.91% 6.99% 7.02% 6.96% 6.91% 6.85% 6.78% 6.79% 6.79%

As the NEB does not distinguish into specific biofuels, consumption data for biodiesel are calculated by applying Germany's official annual shares of biodiesel blended to fossil diesel oil.

In contrast, for LPG-driven forklifters, specific consumption data is modelled in TREMOD-MM. These amounts are then subtracted from the over-all amount available from NEB line 67 to estimate the amount of LPG used in stationary combustion.

Table 3: Annual fuel consumption, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel Oil 7,774 6,413 6,316 6,028 5,851 5,733 5,795 5,853 6,266 6,213 6,314 6,158 6,348 6,562 6,885 6,963
Biodiesel 0 0 0 52 128 167 259 289 431 405 416 404 369 400 372 365
LPG 2,787 3,450 4,261 4,778 4,894 5,007 5,117 5,224 5,328 5,431 5,441 5,449 5,456 5,462 5,467 5,471
NFR TOTAL 10,561 9,863 10,577 10,858 10,873 10,907 11,171 11,366 12,025 12,049 12,171 12,011 12,174 12,424 12,724 12,800

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a and b) [4], In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from the July 2017 version of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4] for road vehicles (chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv Passenger cars, light commercial trucks, heavy-duty vehicles including buses and motor cycles; page: 92 ff). Regarding heavy metals, separate tier1 default EFs are provided there in tables 3.77 and 3.78 for emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear as well as lubricant co-incineration. Heavy-metal emissions from lubricants (as far as not used in 2-stroke mix) are reported under NFR 2.G as emissions from product use.
(Note: Until submission 2017, the EMEP/EEA default EFs provided for NRMM were used in the German inventory. As these EFs do not differentiate between fuel combustion and lubricant co-incineration, the inventory compiler decided to apply the more specific EFs from road transport to NRMM in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii and c ii and 1.A.5.b, too.)

For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additional emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [5] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil are applied to biodiesel, too.

Table 4: Annual country-specific emission factors from TREMOD MM, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel fuels 1
NH3 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
NMVOC 247 223 197 140 129 119 110 101 93 86 79 71 65 59 54
NOx 999 1,026 1,004 835 796 756 716 676 636 597 561 526 493 462 430
SOx 80 61 14 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
PM 2 194 161 134 94 86 80 74 69 65 60 56 52 47 43 39
BC 107 89 74 55 52 49 46 44 42 41 39 37 34 32 30
CO 856 796 726 561 531 502 476 452 429 408 387 368 351 337 328
LPG
NH3 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14
NMVOC 150 150 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148
NOx 1,346 1,342 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325 1,325
SOx 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
PM 2 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
BC 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13
CO 114 114 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112 112

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from the July 2017 version of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4] for road vehicles (chapter ??? , page ??? ff). Regarding heavy metals, separate tier1 default EFs are provided there in tables ??? and ??? for emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear as well as lubricant co-incineration. Heavy-metal emissions from lubricants (as far as not used in 2-stroke mix) are reported under NFR 2.G as emissions from product use.
(Note: Until submission 2017, the EMEP/EEA default EFs provided for NRMM were used in the German inventory. As these EFs do not differentiate between fuel combustion and lubricant co-incineration, the inventory compiler decided to apply the more specific EFs from road transport to NRMM in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii and c ii and 1.A.5.b, too.)

Table 5: Tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 698 1.164 801 184 2,847 1.62
Biodiesel 1 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 806 1.343 924 212 3,284 1.62
LPG NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.04 NE

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.a ii is no key source.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Here, as the EF(BC) are estimated via fractions provided in [4], black carbon emissions follow the corresponding emissions of PM2.5.

Recalculations

Activity data

For diesel oil, the contribution to over-all fuel deliveries data from NEB line 67 have been revised in TREMOD MM as follows:

Table 6: Revised contribution of NFR 1.A.4.a ii to the diesel oil inland deliveries as given in NEB line 67
1997 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Submission 2018 0.0674 0.0664 0.0702 0.0714 0.0692 0.0697 0.0691 0.0699 0.0702 0.0696 0.0691 0.0685 0.0678 0.0679
Submission 2017 0.0674 0.0665 0.0704 0.0716 0.0695 0.0700 0.0694 0.0702 0.0700 0.0671 0.0690 0.0685 0.0675 0.0672
absolute change 0.0000 -0.0001 -0.0002 -0.0002 -0.0002 -0.0002 -0.0003 -0.0003 0.0002 0.0025 0.0001 0.0000 0.0003 0.0008
relative change -0.05% -0.16% -0.26% -0.28% -0.32% -0.33% -0.36% -0.39% 0.25% 3.75% 0.21% -0.03% 0.47% 1.14%

As the amounts of biodiesel are calculated from the amounts of fossil diesel fuel via the official blending shares, NFR-specific consumption data for biodiesel have been revised according to the changes for diesel oil.

Table 7: Revised fuel consumption data, in terajoules
1997 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
diesel oil
Submission 2018 6,506 6,316 6,028 5,851 5,733 5,795 5,853 6,266 6,213 6,314 6,158 6,348 6,562 6,885
Submission 2017 6,510 6,326 6,044 5,867 5,751 5,814 5,874 6,290 6,196 6,086 6,144 6,349 6,530 6,898
absolute change -4 -10 -16 -16 -18 -18 -21 -24 16 228 13 -1 32 -14
relative change -0.05% -0.16% -0.26% -0.27% -0.31% -0.32% -0.35% -0.38% 0.26% 3.75% 0.22% -0.02% 0.48% -0.20%
biodiesel
Submission 2018 0,00 0,00 51,92 127,97 167,00 258,85 289,36 431,50 405,37 415,85 403,69 369,27 399,98 372,18
Submission 2017 0,00 0,00 52,06 128,32 167,52 259,67 290,38 433,14 404,31 400,81 402,81 369,35 398,05 377,22
absolute change 0,00 0,00 -0,14 -0,35 -0,51 -0,82 -1,02 -1,64 1,06 15,04 0,88 -0,08 1,93 -5,04
relative change -0.26% -0.27% -0.31% -0.32% -0.35% -0.38% 0.26% 3.75% 0.22% -0.02% 0.48% -1.34%

source: own estimates based on [1] and [3]

In addition to the revised activity data, several emission factors have been revised.
Here, smaller changes occur to the country-specific values from TREMOD MM.

Table 8: Revised TREMOD MM emission factors for diesel fuels, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
NH3
Submission 2018 0,155 0,159 0,162 0,164 0,165 0,165 0,165 0,165 0,165 0,165 0,165 0,165 0,165 0,165
Submission 2017 0,168 0,210 0,216 0,216 0,218 0,217 0,223 0,228 0,237 0,249 0,244 0,244 0,249 0,250
absolute change -0,013 -0,051 -0,054 -0,052 -0,054 -0,052 -0,058 -0,064 -0,072 -0,084 -0,079 -0,079 -0,084 -0,084
relative change -8% -24% -25% -24% -25% -24% -26% -28% -30% -34% -32% -32% -34% -34%
NMVOC
Submission 2018 247 223 197 140 129 119 110 101 93 86 79 71 65 59
Submission 2017 263 253 219 154 142 131 122 114 107 101 92 84 77 70
absolute change -16 -30 -22 -14 -13 -12 -13 -13 -14 -15 -13 -13 -12 -12
relative change -6% -12% -10% -9% -9% -9% -10% -11% -13% -15% -15% -15% -16% -17%
NOx
Submission 2018 999 1.026 1.004 835 796 756 716 676 636 597 561 526 493 462
Submission 2017 1.078 1.344 1.312 1.075 1.029 971 940 903 876 855 784 731 691 640
absolute change -79 -318 -308 -240 -233 -214 -224 -227 -240 -257 -223 -205 -198 -179
relative change -7% -24% -23% -22% -23% -22% -24% -25% -27% -30% -28% -28% -29% -28%
PM2.5, PM10 and TSP
Submission 2018 194 161 134 94 86 80 74 69 65 60 56 52 47 43
Submission 2017 207 187 154 106 97 90 84 79 75 71 65 60 55 50
absolute change -13 -26 -20 -12 -11 -10 -10 -10 -10 -11 -9 -8 -8 -7
relative change -6% -14% -13% -11% -11% -11% -12% -13% -14% -15% -14% -14% -15% -14%
CO
Submission 2018 856 796 726 561 531 502 476 452 429 408 387 368 351 337
Submission 2017 895 882 805 624 592 560 538 517 500 488 462 442 430 417
absolute change -38 -86 -79 -62 -61 -58 -62 -65 -71 -80 -74 -74 -79 -80
relative change -4% -10% -10% -10% -10% -10% -12% -13% -14% -16% -16% -17% -18% -19%
BC
Submission 2018 107 89 74 55 52 49 46 44 42 41 39 37 34 32
Submission 2017 114 102 85 62 58 54 52 50 49 47 45 42 39 37
absolute change -7 -14 -10 -7 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -7 -6 -5 -5 -5
relative change -6% -13% -12% -11% -11% -10% -11% -12% -13% -14% -13% -13% -13% -13%

Much stronger changes occur to the emission factors for heavy metals which have been replaced with the revised EF provided for NFRs 1.A.3.bi-iv within the EMEP Guidebook 2016 (July 2017 version)!
In the Guidebook, separate EFs for heavy-metal exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear on the one hand and from co-incinerated lubricants on the other hand are presented.
Although the EMEP Guidebook gives no clear instruction, HM emissions from the unintended co-incineration of lubricants in vehicles and machinery are allocated under NFR 2.G - Other product use.

Table 9: Revised tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil
Submission 2018 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 698 1.164 801 184 2.847 1.62
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277 698 1.164 801 184 2.847 1.62
absolute change -1.201 -0.232 0.000 0.000 -0.966 -39.439 -1.625 -0.230 -22.858 0 0 0 0 0 0
relative change -99.04% -99.50% 0.00% 0.00% -83.00% -99.66% -99.71% -99% -98% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Biodiesel 1
Submission 2018 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 806 1,343 924 212 3,284 1.62
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277 698 1,164 801 184 2,847 1.62
absolute change -1.199 -0.231 0.019 0.000 -0.936 -39.419 -1.624 -0.230 -22.794 107 179 123 28 437 0.00
relative change -98.89% -99.42% 15% 15% -80.39% -99.61% -99.67% -98.85% -97.92% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 0.00%

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

Furthermore, as the EMEP Guidebook 2016 (July 2017 version) does not provide such HM exhaust emission factors for LPG-powered road vehicles, the values used so far have been replaced with 'NE' (not estimated):

Table 10: Deleted tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal exhaust emissions from LPG vehicles, in g/TJ
As Cd Hg Cr Cu Pb Ni Se Zn
Submission 2018 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Submission 2017 NE 0.23 NE 0.20 0.81 NE 0.23 NE 46.3

Given the broad revisions and further changes described above, the revised Emission Estimates cannot be displayed here in detail.

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [6]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the annual routine revision of TREMOD MM, no specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained in biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2017: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2015.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2017), Köln & Berlin, 2017.
2. BAFA, 2017: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2016_dezember.xlsx?__blob=publicationFile&v=6, Eschborn, 2017.
3. ifeu, 2017b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2017.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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