1.A.3.d - Navigation

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 08:48 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Category 1.A.3.d - Navigation includes emissions from national and international inland and maritime navigation.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.d Navigation see sub-category details
consisting of / including source categories
Included in National Totals
1.A.3.d i (ii) International Inland Waterways Germany does not report emissions from this sub-category.
1.A.3.d ii National Navigation (Shipping) see sub-category details
Not included in National Totals
1.A.3.d i (i) International Maritime Navigation see sub-category details

Method

Activity Data

Primary fuel deliveries data for the entire navigation sector (maritime and inland waterways) is included in lines 6 ('International Maritime Bunkers') and 64 ('Coastal and Inland Navigation') of the National Energy Balance (NEB) (AGEB, 2017) [1]. (For comparison, official mineral-oil data of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA, 2017) [2] and sales data of the German Petroleum Industry Association (MWV, 2017) [3] are used, too.)

Data on the consumption of biodiesel is provided in NEB line 64 from 2004 onward. However, as this data appears to be rather inconsistent, the consumption of biofuels is calculated within TREMOD via the official annual blending rates.

Table 1: Primary fuel deliveries as listed in the National Energy Balance, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
NEB line 6 - Maritime Bunkers ('Hochseebunkerungen')
Diesel oil 23,336 20,426 21,542 18,971 18,636 22,376 24,441 20,300 20,748 22,483 21,046 18,617 18,333 20,898 43,376 42,652
Heavy fuel oil 80,230 64,382 69,578 92,020 85,370 85,277 104,066 103,830 92,614 93,063 92,649 87,595 77,754 73,729 57,900 75,571
NEB line 64 - Coastal and Inland Navigation ('Küsten- und Binnenschifffahrt')
Diesel oil 27,710 23,562 11,864 11,625 12,831 11,188 6,826 5,426 11,091 11,182 12,050 11,322 11,635 12,112 13,321 12,381
Biodiesel 0 0 0 100 281 326 499 503 765 725 790 739 674 734 720 650
TOTAL Navigation 131,276 108,370 102,984 122,716 117,118 119,167 135,832 130,059 125,218 127,453 126,535 118,273 108,396 107,473 115,317 131,254

As the statistical allocation of fuels delivered to the navigation (shipping) sector follows tax aspects, NEB line 6 ('International Maritime Bunkers') includes all fuel deliveries to IMO-registered ship involved in both national and international maritime activities. On the other hand, NEB line 64 ('Coastal and Inland Navigation') includes all fuel deliveries to ship involved in inland and non-IMO maritime navigation.

Table 2: Allocation of for subsector-specfic fuel deliveries data in the NEB
NEB line including fuel deliveries to navigation sub-sectors…
6 - 'International Maritime Bunkers' …international maritime navigation / national maritime navigation (IMO) / national fishing (IMO) / military navigation (IMO)
64 - 'Coastal and Inland Navigation' …national inland navigation / national maritime navigation (non-IMO) / national fishing (non-IMO) / military navigation (non-IMO)

Therefore, the amounts of fuels listed in NEB lines 6 and 64 have to be broken down on several sub-sectors.
Regarding all national maritime activities, taking place in National Maritime Navigation, 1.A.4.c iii - National fishing, and 1.A.5.b iii - Military navigation), a newly implemented approach allows for estimating tier3 fuel consumption data based on ship movement information (AIS signal) for IMO- and non-IMO ships.
In contrast to this bottom-up approach, fuel consumption in both international maritime navigation and national inland navigation are calculated as simple tier1 estimates. The following equations and charts try to illustrate the way of deducing these tier1 activity data:

Estimating the tier1 activity data for International maritime navigation:

(1)
\begin{align} AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d i} = PAD_\text{ NEB line 6} - AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d ii (a) - IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.4.c iii - IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.5.b iii - IMO} \end{align}

with
AD 1.A.3.d i - tier1 activity data for International maritime navigation
PAD NEB line 6 - primary over-all fuel deliveries data from NEB line 6 - 'International Maritime Bunkers'
AD 1.A.3.d ii (a), IMO - tier3 activity data for IMO-registered ships involved in national maritime navigation
AD 1.A.4.c iii, IMO - tier3 activity data for IMO-registered ships involved in national fishing
AD 1.A.5.b iii, IMO - tier3 activity data for IMO-registered ships involved in military navigation

Estimating the tier1 activity data for National inland navigation:

(2)
\begin{align} AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d ii (b)} = PAD_\text{ NEB line 64} - AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d ii (a) - non-IMO} -AD_\text{ 1.A.4.c iii - non-IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.5.b iii - non-IMO} \end{align}

with
AD 1.A.3.d ii (b) - tier1 activity data for National inland navigation
PAD NEB line 64 - primary over-all fuel deliveries data from NEB line 64 - 'Coastal and Inland Navigation'
AD 1.A.3.d ii (a), non-IMO - tier3 activity data for non-IMO ships involved in national maritime navigation
AD 1.A.4.c iii, non-IMO - tier3 activity data for non-IMO ships involved in national fishing
AD 1.A.5.b iii, non-IMO - tier3 activity data for non-IMO ships involved in military navigation

Table 3: Resulting breakdown of primary fuel deliveries onto the different navigation sub-sectors, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Navigation TOTAL 131,276 108,370 102,984 122,716 117,138 119,172 140,173 134,800 125,238 127,453 126,549 118,274 108,396 107,473 115,317 131,254
1.A.3.d i - International maritime navigation
Diesel oil 12,748 12,919 13,664 11,513 11,993 15,817 17,524 13,105 14,412 16,662 15,370 12,594 12,414 13,674 33,592 27,455
Heavy fuel oil 68,484 56,323 60,984 83,935 78,182 78,257 96,625 96,017 85,865 86,934 86,687 81,171 71,364 67,670 57,850 75,564
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
1.A.3.d ii (a) - National maritime navigation
Diesel oil 15,940 11,258 11,860 11,231 9,962 9,845 10,395 10,834 9,486 8,685 8,489 9,046 9,047 9,965 13,359 16,294
Heavy fuel oil 11,723 8,041 8,577 8,069 7,172 7,004 7,425 7,797 6,733 6,114 5,961 6,410 6,376 6,046 50 7
Biodiesel 0 0 0 35 79 104 169 195 238 205 202 215 192 210 167 150
1.A.3.d ii (b) - National inland navigation
Diesel oil 20,664 18,597 6,788 6,921 8,634 7,050 6,836 5,683 7,129 7,497 8,466 7,556 7,777 8,566 8,918 9,808
Heavy fuel oil NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
Biodiesel 0 0 0 60 189 205 305 281 491 486 555 493 454 495 530 478
1.A.4.c iii - Fishing
Diesel oil 711 549 531 500 488 474 486 484 482 473 442 431 429 472 555 1,117
Heavy fuel oil 24 18 18 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 14 14 13 0 0
Biodiesel 0 0 0 2 4 5 8 9 13 12 11 11 10 10 10 9
1.A.5.b iii - Military navigation
Diesel oil 983 665 563 431 410 383 366 360 349 347 330 313 302 332 273 359
Heavy fuel oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biodiesel 0 0 0 4 9 11 16 18 24 22 21 20 18 19 14 12

Emission factors

Table 4 shows the tier1 emission factors for exhaust emissions of heavy-metals and POPs as applied to all navigation sub-categories in 1.A.3.d as well as NFRs 1.A.4.c iii and 1.A.5.b iii.
The listed values have been derived from default values provided in the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [5] and (Rentz et al., 2008) [6].

Here, as the guidebook does not provide source-specific values for PAHs, respective values provided for diesel in railways and heavy duty road vehicles have been applied as a gap-filling proxy.

Table 4: Tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-4 PCBs HCB PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel fuels 1 3.03 2 0.233 2 0.698 2 0.93 2 1.16 2 20.5 2 23.3 2 2.33 2 27.9 2 698 5 1,164 5 801 6 1846 2,847 4 8.85 2 1.86 2 93 7
Heavy fuel oil 4.46 3 0.496 3 0.496 3 16.9 3 17.8 3 31.0 3 793 3 5.20 3 29.7 3 741 5 1,235 5 849 6 195 6 3,020 4 14.1 3 3.46 3 93 7

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for diesel oil and biodiesel
2 tier1 defaults from [5], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-2
3 tier1 defaults from [5], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-1
4 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
5 tier1 defaults from [5], Chapter: 1.A.3.c Railways: Diesel, Table 3-1
6 tier1 defaults from [5], Chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport, Table 3-8: HDV, Diesel
7 tier1 value derived from [6]

All other emission factors are specific annual values implied values from [4]. These values are provided separately for any navigation sub-category withi the related sub-chapters.

For further information on sub-sector specific consumption data, specific emission factors, key sources, recalculations, projections etc., please refer to the 1.A.3.d sub-chapters linked above.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2017: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2015.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2017), Köln & Berlin, 2017.
2. BAFA, 2017: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2016_dezember.xlsx?__blob=publicationFile&v=6, Eschborn, 2017.
3. MWV, 2017: German Petroleum Industry Association (Mineralölwirtschaftsverband, MWV): Annual Report 2017, page 65, Table 'Sektoraler Verbrauch von Dieselkraftstoff 2012-2015'; URL: https://www.mwv.de/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/170629_Mineraloelwirtschaftsverband_Jahresbericht-2017.pdf, Berlin, 2017.
4. BSH, 2017: Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH): Pflege und Aktualisierung des Modells zur Berechnung der Energieeinsätze und Emissionen des von deutschen Häfen ausgehenden Seeverkehrs, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Hamburg, 2017.
5. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
6. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008; URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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