1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation (Shipping)

Last updated on 20 Mar 2020 10:11 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under category 1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation emissions from national navigation (both inland and maritime) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.d ii National Navigation (Shipping) T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M L & T: PM10 & PM2.5 | L: NOx

Method

Activity data

As described for the over-all sector 1.A.3.d and all other navigational activities here, specific fuel consumption data for NFR 1.A.3.d ii is included in the primary fuel deliveries data provided in NEB lines 6 ('International Maritime Bunkers') and 64 ('Coastal and Inland Navigation') [1].

Here, the annual fuel consumption for domestic maritime navigation are modelled within [4] based on AIS data and deduced from NEB lines 6 and 64 respectively, depending on whether or not a certain ship is registered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Here, fuels consumed by large, IMO-registered and sea-going ships and vessels are included in NEB line 6 whereas fuels consumed by smaller ships without IMO-registration are included in NEB line 64. After these deductions, the amounts of fuels remaining in NEB 64 are allocated to domestic inland navigation.

Table 1: Annual over-all fuel consumption for domestic navigation, in terajoule
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel Oil 36,604 29,855 18,648 18,596 16,895 17,232 16,517 16,615 16,183 16,954 16,601 16,824 18,532 22,781 24,167 22,400 22,492
Biodiesel 0 0 0 268 310 474 476 729 691 757 708 647 705 697 461 520 523
Heavy fuel oil 11,723 8,041 8,577 7,172 7,004 7,425 7,797 6,733 6,114 5,961 6,410 6,376 6,046 50,0 7,05 7,01 283
Ʃ 1.A.3.d ii 48,326 37,896 27,224 26,036 24,209 25,131 24,790 24,077 22,988 23,673 23,719 23,846 25,282 23,528 24,635 22,927 23,298
Table 2: Specific fuel consumption data for domestic maritime and inland navigation, in terajoule
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
National Maritime Navigation
Diesel Oil 15,940 11,258 11,860 9,962 9,845 10,395 10,834 9,486 8,685 8,489 9,046 9,047 9,965 13,359 16,295 15,221 15,856
Biodiesel 0 0 0 79 104 169 195 238 205 202 215 192 210 167 146 134 135
Heavy fuel oil 11,723 8,041 8,577 7,172 7,004 7,425 7,797 6,733 6,114 5,961 6,410 6,376 6,046 50 7,05 7,01 283
National Inland Navigation
Diesel Oil 20,664 18,597 6,788 8,634 7,050 6,836 5,683 7,129 7,497 8,466 7,556 7,777 8,567 9,422 7,873 7,179 6,636
Biodiesel 0 0 0 189 205 305 281 491 486 555 493 454 495 530 315 385 388
Ʃ 1.A.3.d ii 48,326 37,896 27,224 26,036 24,209 25,131 24,790 24,077 22,988 23,673 23,719 23,846 25,282 23,528 24,635 22,927 23,298

Emission factors

The emission factors applied for national maritime navigation are derived from different sources and therefore are of very different quality.

For the main pollutants, country-specific implied values are used, that are based on tier3 EF included in the BSH model [4] which mainly relate on values from the EMEP/EEA guidebook 2019 [2]. These modelled IEFs take into account the ship specific information derived from AIS data as well as the mix of fuel-qualities applied depending on the type of ship and the current state of activity.

Here, for sulphur dioxide and particulate matter, annual values are available representing the impact of fuel sulphur legislation.
In addition, regarding SOx, the increasing operation of so-called scrubbers in order to fullfil emission limits especially within SECA areas is reflected for heavy fuel oil.

Table 3: Country-specific emission factors applied for fuels used in domestic maritime navigation, in [kg/TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel fuels1
NH3 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32
NMVOC 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.4 48.0 44.8 44.7 45.0 45.2
NOx 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,069 1,069 1,069 1,069 1,073 1,077 1,151 1,132 1,157 1,128
SOx 465.5 419.0 232.8 186.2 186.2 186.2 139.7 69.8 69.8 65.18 54.53 52.56 50.48 40.74 40.61 40.74 40.76
BC 109.2 98.6 54.7 43.8 43.8 43.8 32.8 16.4 16.4 15.4 15.3 15.2 15.2 16.3 16.9 16.9 16.5
PM2.5 352.4 318.0 176.5 141.2 141.3 141.3 105.9 53.0 53.0 49.6 49.5 49.1 49.1 52.7 54.5 54.5 53.1
PM10 377.1 340.3 188.9 151.0 151.2 151.2 113.3 56.7 56.7 53.0 53.0 52.5 52.6 56.4 58.3 58.3 56.9
TSP 377.1 340.3 188.9 151.0 151.2 151.2 113.3 56.7 56.7 53.0 53.0 52.5 52.6 56.4 58.3 58.3 56.9
CO 127 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 127 128 134 139 138 136
Heavy fuel oil
NH3 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.35
NMVOC 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 37.6 37.8 30.0 36.8 30.4 28.3
NOx 1,379 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,377 1,379 1,382 1,393 1,348 1,245 1,360 1,503
SOx 1,319 1,332 1,323 1,336 744 742 742 744 496 496 496 496 506 47.5 49.3 46.4 49.8
BC 57.4 58.0 57.6 58.2 32.4 32.3 32.3 32.4 21.6 21.6 21.6 22.1 22.4 18.1 24.7 18.3 14.7
PM2.5 479 483 480 485 270 269 269 270 180 180 180 184 187 151 205 153 123
PM10 526 532 528 533 297 296 296 297 198 198 198 203 206 166 226 168 135
TSP 526 532 528 533 297 296 296 297 198 198 198 203 206 166 226 168 135
CO 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 167 165 198 167 134

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for diesel oil and biodiesel
2 ratios PM2.5 : PM10 : TSP derived from the tier1 default EF as provided in [2], chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation, Tables 3-1 & 3-2
3 estimated from f-BCs as provided in [2]: f-BC (HFO) = 0.12, f-BC (MDO/MGO) = 0.31 as provided in [2], chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation, Tables 3-1 & 3-2

NOTE: For the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, no clear indication is available, whether or not condensables are included.

For main pollutants and particulate matter from national inland navigation, modelled emission factors are available from TREMOD (Knörr et al. (2019a)) [5].
Here, for SO2 and PM, annual values reflect the impact of fuel-sulphur legislation.

Table 4: Country-specific emission factors for diesel fuels used in domestic inland navigation, in [kg/TJ]1
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
NH3 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
NMVOC 96.4 87.9 77.7 66.7 64.9 62.8 60.3 58.8 58.0 56.9 55.7 54.7 53.6 52.6 51.6 50.6 49.7
NOx 1,327 1,331 1,336 1,303 1,290 1,269 1,243 1,227 1,208 1,198 1,183 1,171 1,153 1,136 1,119 1,102 1,085
SOx 86.4 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.38 0.37 0.37
PM2 56.5 51.7 45.6 37.5 35.9 34.5 32.8 31.8 31.1 30.4 29.6 29.0 28.3 27.7 27.1 26.6 26.0
BC3 17.5 16.0 14.1 11.6 11.1 10.7 10.2 9.86 9.63 9.43 9.17 8.99 8.78 8.59 8.42 8.24 8.07
CO 417 387 337 274 262 250 237 229 223 217 211 206 200 195 190 185 180

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
3 calculated from f-BC as provided in [3], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii, Table 3-2: f-BC (MDO/MGO) = 0.31

NOTE: With respect to the emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For information on the emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions, please refer to Appendix 2.3 - Heavy Metal (HM) exhaust emissions from mobile sources and Appendix 2.4 - Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exhaust emissions from mobile sources.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.d ii is key category for emissions of NOx, PM2.5 and PM10.

For ammonia, NMVOC, and nitrogen oxides as well as carbon monoxide, emission trends more or less represent the trend in over-all fuel consumption.

Nonetheless, for these pollutants, annual emission factors from BSH [4] and TREMOD [5] have been applied for national maritime and inland navigation, respectively, reflecting the technical development of the German inland navigation fleet.

Here, the trends in sulphur dioxide and particulate matter emissions reflect the impact of ongoing fuel-sulphur legislation especially in maritime navigation.

Recalculations

Major changes in activity data result from the revision of the National Energy Balance 2017 and revised shares of biodiesel mixed to diesel oil in 2016 and 2017.

Table 5: Revised fuel consumption data 2016 & 2017, in terajoules
Diesel oil Biodiesel Heavy fuel oil Over-all fuel consumption
2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017
Submission 2020 24,167 22,400 461 520 7,05 7,01 24,635 22,927
Submission 2019 24,167 23,245 524 539 7,05 7,01 24,698 23,790
absolute change 0.00 -844 -62.5 -19.3 0.00 0.00 -62.5 -864
relative change 0.00% -3.63% -11.9% -3.57% 0.00% 0.00% -0.25% -3.63%

Furthermore, the country-specific emission factors applied for diesel fuels used in domestic inland navigation have been revised within TREMOD [5]:

Table 6: Revised country-specific emission factors for diesel fuels used in domestic inland navigation, in [kg/TJ]1
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Ammonia - NH3
Submission 2020 0.234 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233
Submission 2019 0.234 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.233 0.234
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.59%
NMVOC
Submission 2020 96.4 87.9 77.7 66.7 64.9 62.8 60.3 58.8 58.0 56.9 55.7 54.7 53.6 52.6 51.6 50.6
Submission 2019 96.4 88.0 78.4 67.6 65.7 63.5 61.2 59.6 57.4 56.4 55.2 54.3 53.3 52.3 51.4 50.6
absolute change 0.00 -0.09 -0.63 -0.81 -0.79 -0.79 -0.83 -0.83 0.53 0.49 0.43 0.43 0.31 0.34 0.23 0.00
relative change 0.00% -0.11% -0.81% -1.20% -1.20% -1.24% -1.36% -1.39% 0.92% 0.86% 0.78% 0.80% 0.58% 0.65% 0.44% -0.01%
NOx
Submission 2020 1.327 1.331 1.336 1.303 1.290 1.269 1.243 1.227 1.208 1.198 1.183 1.171 1.153 1.136 1.119 1.102
Submission 2019 1.327 1.331 1.335 1.303 1.291 1.270 1.245 1.230 1.205 1.195 1.180 1.169 1.152 1.135 1.119 1.102
absolute change 0.00 0.28 0.27 -0.27 -0.39 -0.64 -2.34 -3.11 2.60 2.77 2.38 2.13 1.02 1.31 0.23 0.01
relative change 0.00% 0.02% 0.02% -0.02% -0.03% -0.05% -0.19% -0.25% 0.22% 0.23% 0.20% 0.18% 0.09% 0.12% 0.02% 0.00%
Sulphur oxides - SOx
Submission 2020 86.4 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.38 0.37
Submission 2019 86.4 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.38 0.37
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Black carbon - BC
Submission 2020 17.5 16.0 14.1 11.6 11.1 10.7 10.2 9.9 9.63 9.43 9.17 8.99 8.78 8.59 8.42 8.24
Submission 2019 17.5 16.1 14.3 11.8 11.3 10.9 10.4 10.0 9.52 9.31 9.07 8.90 8.71 8.51 8.36 8.24
absolute change 0.00 -0.02 -0.13 -0.17 -0.17 -0.17 -0.18 -0.18 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.00
relative change 0.00% -0.12% -0.90% -1.45% -1.50% -1.56% -1.75% -1.82% 1.24% 1.21% 1.09% 1.10% 0.83% 0.94% 0.67% -0.01%
Particulate matter - PM
Submission 2020 56.5 51.7 45.6 37.5 35.9 34.5 32.8 31.8 31.1 30.4 29.6 29.0 28.3 27.7 27.1 26.6
Submission 2019 56.5 51.8 46.0 38.1 36.5 35.0 33.4 32.4 30.7 30.0 29.3 28.7 28.1 27.4 27.0 26.6
absolute change 0.00 -0.06 -0.41 -0.55 -0.55 -0.55 -0.58 -0.59 0.38 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.23 0.26 0.18 0.00
relative change 0.00% -0.12% -0.90% -1.45% -1.50% -1.56% -1.75% -1.82% 1.24% 1.21% 1.09% 1.10% 0.83% 0.94% 0.67% -0.01%
Carbon monoxide - CO
Submission 2020 417 387 337 274 262 250 237 229 223 217 211 206 200 195 190 185
Submission 2019 417 388 340 279 267 255 242 233 220 214 208 203 198 193 188 185
absolute change 0.00 -0.59 -3.49 -4.55 -4.49 -4.47 -4.79 -4.82 3.07 2.93 2.58 2.56 1.87 2.06 1.42 -0.02
relative change 0.00% -0.15% -1.02% -1.63% -1.68% -1.76% -1.98% -2.07% 1.40% 1.37% 1.24% 1.26% 0.94% 1.07% 0.76% -0.01%

In contrast, the country-specific emission factors applied for fuels used in national maritime navigation remain unaltered.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant-specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by Knörr et al. (2009) [7].

Planned improvements

With the next annual submission routine revisions of the models used for maritime [4] and inland navigation [5] are scheduled.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2019: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2017.html, Köln & Berlin, 2019.
2. BAFA (2019): Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: https://www.bafa.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Energie/Mineraloel/moel_amtliche_daten_2018_dezember.xlsx?__blob=publicationFile&v=4, (Aufruf: 29.11.2019), Eschborn, 2019.
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5. Knörr et al. (2019a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2035, sowie TREMOD, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2019.
6. EMEP/EEA (2019): EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019, Copenhagen, 2019.
7. Knörr et al. (2009): Knörr, W., Heldstab, J., & Kasser, F.: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland; final report; URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/461/publikationen/3937.pdf, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich, 2009.
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