1.A.3.d i (i) - International Maritime Navigation

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 08:55 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under NFR category 1.A.3.d i (i), emissions from international maritime navigation fuelling in and starting form German harbours are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.d i (i) International Maritime Navigation T1 - T3 NS, M CS, D, M not included in national totals

The source category includes international deep sea fishery and international marine transport. Emissions from fuel consumption for international transports of ocean-going ships are not reported as part of total national inventories.

Method

Activity data

Primary fuel delivery data (primary activity data, PAD) for international maritime navigation is included in line 6 - 'International Deep-Sea Bunkers' of the National Energy Balances (NEB) (AGEB, 2017) [1] together with respective data for IMO-registered ships used in national maritime transport (see 1.A.3.d ii (a)), fishing (see 1.A.4.c iii) and military navigation (see 1.A.5.b iii).

The AD applied for international maritime navigation therefore represents the remains of primary fuel delivery data from NEB line 6 minus the modelled consumption data estimated for non-IMO ships in 1.A.3.d ii (a), 1.A.4.c iii and 1.A.5.b iii:

(1)
\begin{align} AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d i} = PAD_\text{ NEB line 6} - AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d ii (a) - IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.4.c iii - IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.5.b iii - IMO} \end{align}
Table 1: Annual fuel consumption, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel Oil 12,748 12,919 13,664 11,993 15,817 17,524 13,105 14,412 16,662 15,370 12,594 12,414 13,674 33,592 27,455
Heavy Fuel Oil 68,484 56,323 60,984 78,182 78,257 96,625 96,017 85,865 86,934 86,687 81,171 71,364 67,670 57,850 75,564
NFR TOTAL 81,232 69,242 74,648 90,175 94,074 114,149 109,122 100,277 103,596 102,057 93,765 83,778 81,344 91,442 103,018

source: own estimates based on [2]

Consumption of heavy oil has been increasing since 1984 as a result of high petroleum prices, global increases in transports and increasing maritime use of diesel engines that can run on heavy oil. The emissions fluctuations that occurred in the navigation sector in 1992 and 1996 were caused by trade and oil crises.

Emission factors

For main pollutants and particulate matter, modelled emission factors are available from [2].
Here, for sulphur dioxide and particulate matter, annual values are available representing the impact of fuel sulphur legislation.
In addition, regarding SOx, the increasing operation of so-called scrubbers in order to fullfil emission limits especially within SECA areas is reflected for heavy fuel oil.

Table 2: Annual country-specific emission factors from BSH-model [2], in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel oil
NH3 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.32
NMVOC 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.4 48.0 44.8 44.7
NOx 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,069 1,069 1,069 1,069 1,073 1,077 1,151 1,132
SOx 466 419 233 186 186 186 140 70 70 65 55 53 50 41 41
PM2.5 1 352 318 177 141 141 141 106 53 53 50 49 49 49 53 54
PM10 & TSP 377 340 189 151 151 151 113 57 57 53 53 53 53 56 58
BC 2 109 99 55 44 44 44 33 16 16 15 15 15 15 16 17
CO 127 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 127 128 134 139
Heavy fuel oil
NH3 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.33 0.33
NMVOC 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 37.6 37.8 30.0 36.4
NOx 1,379 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,377 1,379 1,382 1,393 1,348 1,233
SOx 1,319 1,332 1,323 1,336 744 742 742 744 496 496 496 496 506 47 49
PM2.5 1 479 483 480 485 270 269 269 270 180 180 180 184 187 151 203
PM10 & TSP 526 532 528 533 297 296 296 297 198 198 198 203 206 166 224
BC 2 57.4 58.0 57.6 58.2 32.4 32.3 32.3 32.4 21.6 21.6 21.6 22.1 22.4 18.1 24.4
CO 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 167 165 196

1 ratios PM2.5 : PM10 : TSP derived from the tier1 default EF as provided in [3]
2 estimated from f-BCs as provided in [3]

For heavy metals and PCDD/F, PAHs, HCB and PCBs, similar tier1 values are applied for all navigation sub-categories. For details please refer to the superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.d linked here.

Trends of exhaust emissions from international navigation

NFR 1.A.3.d i is not considered in the key category analysis.

Emission trends for unregulated pollutants (such as NH3, NOx, NMVOC and CO, all HM and POPs) with only slight changes in the annual over-all IEFs applied, follow the trends in fuel consumption and the shares of diesel and heavy fuel oil:

On the other hand, the emission trends for SOx and PM, both depending on the fuel's sulphur content, follow not only the trends in fuel consumption but do also reflect fuel-sulphur legislation:

Recalculations

Acitivity data:

Resulting from changes in the fuel consumption data computed within [2] for domestic maritime navigation, the 2014 and 2015 fuel deliveries for international maritime navigation have been reviesed.

Table 3: Revised fuel consumption data 2014 & 2015, in terajoules
Diesel oil Heavy fuel oil
2014 2015 2014 2015
Submission 2018 13,674 33,592 67,670 57,850
Submission 2017 13,589 38,996 69,100 49,892
absolute change 85 -5,404 -1,430 7,958
relative change 1% -14% -2% 16%

Emission Factors: For all main pollutants and carbon monoxide, the country specific values have been revised within [2].

Table 4: Revised country-specific emission factors in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel oil
Ammonia - NH3
Submission 2018 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.321 0.326
Submission 2017 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319
absolute change 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.007
relative change 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.6% 0.8% 2.2%
Non-methane volatile organic compounds - NMVOC
Submission 2018 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.4 48.0 44.8
Submission 2017 60.4 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.3 60.8 63.7 63.7
absolute change -11.7 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -12.4 -15.7 -18.9
relative change -19% -19% -19% -19% -19% -19% -19% -19% -19% -19% -19% -20% -25% -30%
Nitrogen oxides - NOx
Submission 2018 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,070 1,069 1,069 1,069 1,069 1,073 1,077 1,151
Submission 2017 1,085 1,084 1,084 1,084 1,084 1,084 1,084 1,084 1,084 1,083 1,084 1,085 1,083 1,083
absolute change -15 -14 -15 -15 -14 -14 -15 -14 -14 -14 -14 -12 -6 68
relative change -1,4% -1,3% -1,3% -1,3% -1,3% -1,3% -1,3% -1,3% -1,3% -1,3% -1,3% -1,1% -0,5% 6,3%
Sulphur oxides - SOx
Submission 2018 466 419 233 186 186 186 140 70 70 65 55 53 50 41
Submission 2017 466 419 233 186 186 186 140 70 70 65 65 65 65 65
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -11 -13 -15 -24
relative change 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% -16% -19% -23% -37%
Particulate matter - PM2.5
Submission 2018 352 318 177 141 141 141 106 53 53 50 49 49 49 53
Submission 2017 406 367 204 163 163 163 122 61 61 57 57 58 60 60
absolute change -53 -49 -27 -22 -22 -22 -16 -8 -8 -8 -8 -9 -11 -7
relative change -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -15% -18% -12%
Particulate matter - PM10 & TSP
Submission 2018 377 340 189 151 151 151 113 57 57 53 53 53 53 56
Submission 2017 434 392 218 174 174 174 131 65 65 61 61 62 64 64
absolute change -57 -52 -29 -23 -23 -23 -17 -9 -9 -8 -8 -9 -12 -8
relative change -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -15% -18% -12%
Black Carbon - BC
Submission 2018 109 99 55 44 44 44 33 16 16 15 15 15 15 16
Submission 2017 126 114 63 50 51 51 38 19 19 18 18 18 19 19
absolute change -17 -15 -8 -7 -7 -7 -5 -3 -3 -2 -2 -3 -3 -2
relative change -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -13% -15% -18% -12%
Carbon monoxide - CO
Submission 2018 127 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 127 128 134
Submission 2017 138 139 139 139 139 139 139 139 139 139 139 140 144 144
absolute change -11 -11 -11 -11 -11 -11 -11 -11 -11 -11 -11 -13 -16 -10
relative change -8% -8% -8% -8% -8% -8% -8% -8% -8% -8% -8% -9% -11% -7%
Heavy fuel oil
Ammonia - NH3
Submission 2018 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.339 0.345 0.334
Submission 2017 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.330 0.330 0.330
absolute change 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.009 0.015 0.004
relative change 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 3.0% 2.7% 4.6% 1.3%
Non-methane volatile organic compounds - NMVOC
Submission 2018 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 30
Submission 2017 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 153 153 157 158 158
absolute change -117 -117 -117 -117 -117 -117 -117 -117 -117 -117 -117 -120 -120 -128
relative change -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -76% -81%
Nitrogen oxides - NOx
Submission 2018 1,379 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,378 1,377 1,379 1,382 1,393 1,348
Submission 2017 1,309 1,307 1,307 1,308 1,307 1,307 1,308 1,307 1,307 1,306 1,306 1,320 1,325 1,325
absolute change 70 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 62 69 23
relative change 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% 5.5% 5.5% 4.7% 5.2% 1.8%
Sulphur oxides - SOx
Submission 2018 1,319 1,332 1,323 1,336 744 742 742 744 496 496 496 496 506 47
Submission 2017 1,319 1,332 1,323 1,336 744 742 742 744 496 496 496 496 496 496
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 -449
relative change 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% -90%
Particulate matter - PM2.5
Submission 2018 479 483 480 485 270 269 269 270 180 180 180 184 187 151
Submission 2017 708 715 710 717 399 398 398 399 266 266 266 268 270 270
absolute change -230 -231 -230 -232 -129 -129 -129 -129 -86 -86 -86 -84 -83 -119
relative change -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -31% -31% -44%
Particulate matter - PM10 & TSP
Submission 2018 526 532 528 533 297 296 296 297 198 198 198 203 206 166
Submission 2017 779 786 781 789 439 438 438 439 292 292 293 295 297 297
absolute change -253 -254 -253 -255 -142 -142 -142 -142 -95 -94 -95 -92 -91 -131
relative change -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -31% -31% -44%
Black Carbon - BC
Submission 2018 57.4 58.0 57.6 58.2 32.4 32.3 32.3 32.4 21.6 21.6 21.6 22.1 22.4 18.1
Submission 2017 85.0 85.8 85.2 86.0 47.9 47.8 47.8 47.9 31.9 31.9 31.9 32.2 32.4 32.4
absolute change -27.6 -27.7 -27.6 -27.9 -15.5 -15.5 -15.5 -15.5 -10.3 -10.3 -10.3 -10.0 -10.0 -14.3
relative change -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -32% -31% -31% -44%
Carbon monoxide - CO
Submission 2018 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 162 167 165
Submission 2017 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 186 185 185
absolute change -26 -26 -26 -26 -26 -26 -26 -26 -26 -26 -26 -24 -17 -20
relative change -14% -14% -14% -14% -14% -14% -14% -14% -14% -14% -14% -13% -9% -11%

In contrast, all tier1 default EF (HMs, POPs) remain unchanged.

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Planned improvements

Besides routine maintenance and further development of the BSH model, no improvements are planned.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2017: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2015.html, Köln & Berlin, 2017.
2. BSH, 2017: Pflege und Aktualisierung des Modells zur Berechnung der Energieeinsätze und Emissionen des von deutschen Häfen ausgehenden Seeverkehrs, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Hamburg, 2017.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008; URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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