1.A.3.b iv - Road Transport: Mopeds & Motorcycles

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 08:40 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b iv - Road Transport: Mopeds & Motorcycles emissions from fuel combustion in motorised two-wheelers are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b iv Mopeds & Motorcycles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L: NMVOC, CO, BC

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for mopeds and motorcycles is generated within the TREMOD model (ifeu, 2017a) [1].
The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of gasoline fuels consumed by motorized two-wheelers in Germany.

__Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of mopeds and motorcycles, in terajoules_
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Mopeds
Gasoline 4,940 3,433 3,142 3,157 3,162 3,267 3,384 3,276 3,291 3,357 3,241 3,306
Bioethanol 0 0 0 3 22 126 139 145 141 146 141 144
Mopeds - Subtotal 4,940 3,433 3,142 3,160 3,183 3,393 3,522 3,421 3,432 3,503 3,382 3,449
Motorcycles
Gasoline 17,110 13,195 16,042 17,041 16,990 14,117 14,650 14,564 15,249 15,932 15,400 15,410
Bioethanol 0 0 0 18 117 545 600 645 654 693 668 669
Motorcycels - Subtotal 17,110 13,195 16,042 17,060 17,107 14,663 15,250 15,209 15,903 16,625 16,068 16,079
Motorized Two-Wheelers: Mopeds & Motorcycles
Gasoline 22,049 16,628 19,184 20,198 20,151 17,384 18,033 17,840 18,540 19,289 18,641 18,715
Bioethanol 0 0 0 22 138 672 739 791 795 839 808 813
NFR TOTAL 22,049 16,628 19,184 20,220 20,290 18,056 18,773 18,631 19,335 20,128 19,449 19,528

source: TREMOD 5.72 [1]

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.3) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within TREMOD [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.

Table 2: Annual country-specific implied emission factors 1, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Motorcycles
NH3 1.19 1.25 1.31 1.35 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.36
NMVOC 1,937.99 985.60 931.14 835.29 663.40 638.35 616.73 595.82 572.50 543.18 520.03
NOx 209.91 225.33 204.10 191.20 180.61 176.40 170.66 165.35 161.10 159.42 155.88
SO2 14.61 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 13,384.24 13,628.55 12,667.43 11,190.59 9,197.04 8,817.48 8,408.58 8,023.17 7,652.71 7,330.35 6,992.34
PM2.5 NA 23.00 23.61 20.85 16.01 15.33 14.64 14.03 13.43 12.82 12.24
PM10 NA 23.00 23.61 20.85 16.01 15.33 14.64 14.03 13.43 12.82 12.24
TSP 3 26.98 23.82 23.61 20.85 16.01 15.33 14.64 14.03 13.43 12.82 12.24
BC NA NA 3.21 2.94 2.29 2.20 2.11 2.03 1.95 1.88 1.80
Mopeds
NH3 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25
NMVOC 4,065.72 4,136.84 4,136.84 3,939.93 3,520.41 3,436.78 3,435.49 3,359.91 3,286.74 3,185.13 3,139.33
NOx. 87.67 92.09 92.09 90.33 86.59 85.85 85.83 85.16 84.51 83.60 83.19
SO2 16.86 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 7,769.68 7,809.37 7,809.37 7,395.48 6,513.68 6,337.90 6,335.19 6,176.34 6,022.55 5,808.96 5,712.69
PM2.5 NA 219.91 140.20 142.19 112.79 109.32 110.62 108.11 104.64 98.77 95.65
PM10 NA 219.91 140.20 142.19 112.79 109.32 110.62 108.11 104.64 98.77 95.65
TSP 3 223.38 220.74 140.20 142.19 112.79 109.32 110.62 108.11 104.64 98.77 95.65
BC NA NA 14.02 14.53 12.25 12.03 12.17 12.03 11.80 11.37 11.13

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 from fuel combustion only!
3 from 1990 to 1997: also including additional dust from leaded gasoline

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the July 2017 version of (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 2: Overview of applied EMEP/EEA defaults and other tier1 EF
As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn PCDD/F B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4
[g/TJ] [µg/km] [mg/TJ]
0.007 0.005 0.145 0.103 0.200 0.053 0.037 0.005 0.758 0.0000027 192.91 215.88 156.17 234.25 799.21

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iv is key category for CO and Black Carbon.

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of NMVOC have decreased due to technical improvements.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) exhaust emissions from two-wheelers shows charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage.

Particulate Matter (PM)

Particle emissions result from the comusbtion of gasoline and bioethanol. Here, due to the assumption that nearly all TSP emitted is formed by particles in the PM2.5 range, similar estimates are provided for all three fractions. (Exception: Until 1997, additional TSP emissions from use of leaded gasoline are included.)

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2017, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2015. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 3: Revised fuel consumption data, in terajoules
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Mopeds: Gasoline
Submission 2018 3,323 3,307 3,393 3,438 3,267 3,384 3,276 3,291 3,357 3,241
Submission 2017 3,319 3,302 3,388 3,433 3,262 3,379 3,281 3,299 3,369 3,275
absolute change 4 4 5 5 5 5 -5 -8 -12 -33
relative change 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% -0.15% -0.25% -0.36% -1.02%
Mopeds: Bioethanol
Submission 2018 48 45 65 98 126 139 145 141 146 141
Submission 2017 48 45 65 98 126 139 145 141 147 142
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1
relative change 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% -0.14% -0.25% -0.36% -1.02%
Motorcycles: Gasoline
Submission 2018 17,001 13,861 14,099 14,220 14,117 14,650 14,564 15,249 15,932 15,400
Submission 2017 16,979 13,843 14,080 14,200 14,097 14,629 14,552 15,242 15,927 15,487
absolute change 22 18 19 20 20 21 12 8 6 -87
relative change 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.08% 0.05% 0.04% -0.56%
Motorcycles: Bioethanol
Submission 2018 245 187 270 406 545 600 645 654 693 668
Submission 2017 245 187 269 406 545 600 645 653 693 672
absolute change 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 -4
relative change 0,13% 0,13% 0,14% 0,14% 0,14% 0,14% 0,08% 0,05% 0,03% -0,56%
Motorized Two-Wheelers: Gasoline
Submission 2018 20,324 17,167 17,492 17,657 17,384 18,033 17,840 18,540 19,289 18,641
Submission 2017 20,298 17,145 17,469 17,633 17,360 18,008 17,833 18,540 19,296 18,761
absolute change 26 22 24 24 25 26 7 -1 -6 -120
relative change 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.04% 0.00% -0.03% -0.64%
Motorized Two-Wheelers: Bioethanol
Submission 2018 293 232 334 504 672 739 791 795 839 808
Submission 2017 293 232 334 504 671 738 790 795 839 814
absolute change 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 -5
relative change 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.04% -0.01% -0.03% -0.64%

Emission factors

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

However, the tier1 EMEP/EEA defaults for heavy-metal exhaust emissions have been revised widely based on the information provided in the July 2017 version of the relevant Guidebook chapter, where separate emission factors are provided for emissions from fuel combstion and engine wear on one hand and the co-incineration of lubricants on the other hand:

Table: Revised heavy-metal emission factors, in g/TJ
As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn
Submission 2018 0.007 0.005 0.145 0.133 0.200 0.053 0.037 0.005 0.758
Submission 2017 0.007 0.230 1.148 39.042 0.200 1.608 0.762 0.230 22.966
absolute change 0.000 -0.225 -1.004 -38.909 0.000 -1.555 -0.726 -0.225 -22.208
relative change 0.00% -98.00% -87.40% -99.66% 0.00% -96.71% -95.18% -98.00% -96.70%

The tier1 default EF for PAHs and PCDD/F remain unchanged instead.

Emission estimates

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2017a: Knörr, W. et al.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.71, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2017.
2. INFRAS, 2017: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.3 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.3) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2017
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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