1.A.3.b iv - Road Transport: Mopeds & Motorcycles

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b iv - Road Transport: Mopeds & Motorcycles emissions from fuel combustion in motorised two-wheelers are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b iv Mopeds & Motorcycles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L: NMVOC, CO, PM10

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for mopeds and motorcycles is generated within the TREMOD model (ifeu, 2018a) [1].
The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of gasoline fuels consumed by motorized two-wheelers in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of mopeds and motorcycles, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
MOPEDS
Gasoline 4,940 3,433 3,142 3,162 3,323 3,307 3,393 3,438 3,267 3,384 3,276 3,291 3,357 3,241 3,287 3,318
Biogasoline 0 0 0 22 48 45 65 98 126 139 145 141 146 141 143 141
Ʃ Mopeds 4,940 3,433 3,142 3,183 3,371 3,351 3,458 3,536 3,393 3,522 3,421 3,432 3,503 3,382 3,429 3,459
MOTORCYCLES
Gasoline 17,110 13,195 16,042 16,990 16,983 13,861 14,099 14,220 14,117 14,650 14,564 15,249 15,932 15,400 15,322 15,491
Biogasoline 0 0 0 117 245 187 270 406 545 600 645 654 693 668 666 659
Ʃ Motorcycles 17,110 13,195 16,042 17,107 17,227 14,048 14,369 14,626 14,663 15,250 15,209 15,903 16,625 16,068 15,987 16,150
MOTORIZED 2-WHEELERS: Mopeds & Motorcycles
Gasoline 22,049 16,628 19,184 20,151 20,306 17,167 17,492 17,657 17,384 18,033 17,840 18,540 19,289 18,641 18,609 18,809
Biogasoline 0 0 0 138 293 232 334 504 672 739 791 795 839 808 808 801
Ʃ 1.A.3.b iv 22,049 16,628 19,184 20,290 20,598 17,399 17,827 18,162 18,056 18,773 18,631 19,335 20,128 19,449 19,417 19,609

source: TREMOD 5.81 [1]

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.3) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within TREMOD [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.

Table 2: Annual country-specific implied emission factors1, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
NH3 1.21 1.25 1.30 1.33 1.34 1.33 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34
NMVOC2 2,415 1,636 1,456 1,322 1,303 1,315 1,287 1,252 1,200 1,163 1,134 1,086 1,045 1,003 983 954
NOx 183 198 186 175 171 179 173 167 163 159 155 151 148 146 143 140
SO2 15.11 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 12,126 12,427 11,872 10,595 10,045 9,817 9,436 9,036 8,693 8,352 8,028 7,695 7,369 7,066 6,766 6,488
PM2.5 NA 63.7 42.7 39.9 38.8 40.0 38.1 36.3 34.2 33.0 32.3 30.7 29.3 27.8 27.0 25.4
PM10 NA 63.7 42.7 39.9 38.8 40.0 38.1 36.3 34.2 33.0 32.3 30.7 29.3 27.8 27.0 25.4
TSP3 71.0 64.5 42.7 39.9 38.8 40.0 38.1 36.3 34.2 33.0 32.3 30.7 29.3 27.8 27.0 25.4
BC NA NA 4.98 4.75 4.60 4.71 4.54 4.36 4.16 4.05 3.96 3.81 3.67 3.53 3.45 3.30

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 from fuel combustion only!
3 from 1990 to 1997: also including additional dust from leaded gasoline

NOTE: With respect to the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the July 2017 version of (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 2: Overview of applied EMEP/EEA defaults and other tier1 EF
As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn PCDD/F B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4
[g/TJ] [µg/km] [mg/TJ]
0.007 0.005 0.145 0.103 0.200 0.053 0.037 0.005 0.758 0.0000027 192.91 215.88 156.17 234.25 799.21

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iv is key category for CO and Black Carbon.

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of NMVOC have decreased due to technical improvements.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) exhaust emissions from two-wheelers shows charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage.

Particulate Matter (PM)

Particle emissions result from the comusbtion of gasoline and bioethanol. Here, due to the assumption that nearly all TSP emitted is formed by particles in the PM2.5 range, similar estimates are provided for all three fractions. (Exception: Until 1997, additional TSP emissions from use of leaded gasoline are included.)

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2018, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2016.

Table 3: Revised 2016 fuel consumption data, in terajoules
Mopeds Motorcycles Motorized Two-Wheelers
Gasoline Biogasoline Gasoline Biogasoline Gasoline Biogasoline
Submission 2019 3,287 143 15,322 666 18,609 808
Submission 2018 3,306 144 15,410 669 18,715 813
absolute change -19 -0.820 -87.6 -3.82 -106 -4.64
relative change -0.57% -0.57% -0.57% -0.57% -0.57% -0.57%

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

The tier1 default EF for HMs, PAHs and PCDD/F remain unchanged instead.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2018a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.81, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2018.
2. Keller et al., (2007): Keller, M., Hausberger, S., Matzer, C., Wüthrich, P., & Notter, B.: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.3 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.3) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2017.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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