1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses emissions from fuel combustion in trucks, lorries, buses etc. are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles (incl. Buses) T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L & T: NOx, PM2.5, PM10, BC

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and lorries) and buses are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following tables provide an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by these vehicles in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of trucks and lorries, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
HDV: Trucks & Lorries
Diesel oil 412,472 573,298 675,947 520,828 526,681 507,317 512,670 498,838 540,463 541,832 564,113 581,537 561,194 605,088 621,095 636,425
Biodiesel 0 894 7,488 34,681 63,357 67,660 50,863 39,987 41,128 37,477 39,498 34,206 34,193 32,801 32,687 33,755
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 24
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6
Trucks - TOTAL 412,472 574,193 683,436 555,509 590,038 574,977 563,533 538,825 581,590 579,308 603,612 615,743 595,387 637,889 653,792 670,210
HDV: Buses
Diesel oil 62,591 62,821 63,016 46,027 44,073 40,157 40,206 42,565 44,561 43,481 47,327 48,286 45,498 48,338 49,447 50,405
Biodiesel 0 98 698 3,065 5,302 5,356 3,989 3,412 3,391 3,007 3,314 2,840 2,772 2,620 2,602 2,673
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,202 1,167 1,025 1,047 943 690 569
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Buses - TOTAL 62,591 63,529 64,128 49,874 50,486 46,761 45,455 47,315 49,256 47,690 51,808 52,151 49,317 51,902 52,739 53,647
HDV: Trucks & Lorries + Buses
Diesel oil 475,063 636,119 738,963 566,855 570,754 547,474 552,876 541,402 585,024 585,313 611,440 629,822 606,692 653,426 670,541 686,830
Biodiesel 0 992 8,187 37,746 68,659 73,015 54,852 43,399 44,519 40,484 42,812 37,046 36,965 35,421 35,290 36,429
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,202 1,167 1,025 1,047 943 698 592
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6
NFR TOTAL 475,063 637,721 747,564 605,383 640,524 621,738 608,988 586,140 630,846 626,999 655,420 667,894 644,704 689,791 706,531 723,856

source: TREMOD 5.81 [1]

LKW.PNG
bus.PNG

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.3) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: Annual country-specific implied tier3 emission factors, in kg/TJ__
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel fuels1
NH3 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.39 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.41 0.41 0.43 0.44 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.48
NMVOC 69.50 80.08 67.87 41.54 40.25 33.97 26.53 21.68 19.60 16.29 14.55 12.81 10.86 10.24 9.41 8.71
NOx 952.79 1,234.49 1,338.83 868.31 862.68 759.87 646.54 563.48 549.48 496.93 479.99 449.23 387.10 351.66 301.45 256.65
SO2 112.24 81.17 21.97 0.47 0.50 0.49 0.48 0.46 0.49 0.49 0.51 0.52 0.50 0.54 0.55 0.57
CO 207.08 177.76 142.18 129.34 126.19 123.29 120.21 119.81 117.92 116.21 114.53 110.49 100.87 85.73 71.10 58.51
PM2 39.92 43.27 32.64 19.42 19.12 16.47 13.30 11.16 10.47 9.09 8.46 7.71 6.52 5.84 4.97 4.20
BC 19.96 17.09 12.08 9.34 9.22 8.56 7.08 6.08 5.39 4.70 4.27 3.81 3.34 2.76 2.24 1.90
CNG & Biogas3
NH3 NA NA NA 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17
NMVOC NA NA NA 1.20 1.20 1.18 1.18 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.14 1.16
NOx NA NA NA 174.32 174.32 173.48 173.15 172.98 172.99 172.62 172.73 172.46 172.20 171.94 170.34 166.50
SO2 NA NA NA 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
CO NA NA NA 25.49 25.49 25.18 25.04 24.99 24.96 24.85 24.85 24.75 24.65 24.51 24.26 23.82
PM2 NA NA NA 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.59 0.58
BC NA NA NA 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
Petroleum (buses only)
NH3 NA 0.28 0.29 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
NMVOC NA 54.21 43.90 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
NOx NA 975.13 895.22 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
SO2 NA 24.00 13.97 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
CO NA 185.17 151.48 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
PM2 NA 32.62 23.39 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
BC NA 16.79 12.83 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
3 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for CNG and biogas

NOTE: With respect to the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the July 2017 version of (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 3: tier1 EF derived from default values
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1,788
Biodiesel 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2,062
CNG & Biogas NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Petroleum NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
all fuels: buses 0.000019
all fuels: trucks & lorries 0.000016

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iii is key category for NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Until 2005, NOx emissions followed mileage and fuel consumption. Since 2006, in contrast to nearly unchanged fuel consumption, emissions have decreased due to controlled catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from continual tightening of emissions laws.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since the early 1990s, exhaust emissions of NMVOC and carbon monoxide have decreased due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles show charcteristics different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the Party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2018, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2016. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 4: Revised fuel consumption data as of 2012, in terajoules
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Trucks: Diesel oil
Submission 2019 564,113 581,537 561,194 605,088 621,095
Submission 2018 564,107 581,522 561,153 605,034 625,638
absolute change 6 15 41 54 -4,543
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.01% 0.01% -0.73%
Trucks: Biodiesel
Submission 2019 39,498 34,206 34,193 32,801 32,687
Submission 2018 39,498 34,205 34,190 32,798 32,890
absolute change 0 1 2 3 -203
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.01% 0.01% -0.62%
Trucks: CNG
Submission 2019 0 0 0 0 8
Submission 2018 NE NE NE NE NE
absolute change 0 0 0 0 8
relative change
Trucks: Biogas
Submission 2019 0 0 0 0 2
Submission 2018 NE NE NE NE NE
absolute change 0 0 0 0 2
relative change
Buses: Diesel oil
Submission 2019 47,327 48,286 45,498 48,338 49,447
Submission 2018 47,327 48,284 45,515 48,359 49,642
absolute change 0 1 -17 -21 -195
relative change 0.00% 0.00% -0.04% -0.04% -0.39%
Buses: Biodiesel
Submission 2019 3,314 2,840 2,772 2,620 2,602
Submission 2018 3,314 2,840 2,773 2,622 2,610
absolute change 0 0 -1 -1 -7
relative change 0.00% 0.00% -0.04% -0.04% -0.28%
Buses: CNG
Submission 2019 1,167 1,025 1,047 943 690
Submission 2018 1,167 1,025 1,047 943 886
absolute change 0 0 0 0 -196
relative change 0.01% 0.01% 0.02% 0.03% -22.17%
Buses: Biogas
Submission 2019 167 203 264 159 162
Submission 2018 167 203 264 159 143
absolute change 0 0 0 0 20
relative change 0.01% 0.01% 0.02% 0.03% 13.76%

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2018a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.81, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2018.
2. Keller et al. (2007): Keller, M., Hausberger, S., Matzer, C., Wüthrich, P., & Notter, B.: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.3 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.3) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2017.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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