1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses

Last updated on 19 Mar 2020 10:35 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses emissions from fuel combustion in trucks, lorries, buses etc. are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles (incl. Buses) T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L & T: NOx, PM2.5, PM10, BC

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and lorries) and buses are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following tables provide an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by these vehicles in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of trucks and lorries, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
HDVs: Buses
Diesel oil 55,150 47,931 47,854 38,966 42,435 41,389 43,823 45,779 45,332 48,707 49,184 47,804 45,803
Biodiesel 0 75 530 2,595 3,229 2,863 3,068 2,693 2,762 2,640 2,588 2,535 2,644
CNG 0 0 0 1,178 2,188 1,999 2,142 1,708 1,655 1,569 1,194 1,005 1,091
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 306 338 417 265 281 312 255
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ʃ Buses 55,150 48,006 48,385 42,739 47,852 46,250 49,340 50,517 50,166 53,181 53,247 51,657 49,792
HDVs: Trucks & Lorries
Diesel oil 385,726 521,830 618,687 477,169 524,126 525,901 550,904 566,338 542,865 579,961 587,801 592,974 577,135
Biodiesel 0 814 6,854 31,774 39,884 36,375 38,574 33,312 33,076 31,439 30,935 31,449 33,312
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 397 340 317 273 194 166 201
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 57 67 80 46 46 52 47
Ʃ Trucks & Lorries 385,726 522,644 625,541 508,943 564,010 562,276 589,932 600,057 576,338 611,719 618,975 624,641 610,695
HDVs over all
Diesel oil 440,876 569,761 666,542 516,135 566,561 567,290 594,728 612,117 588,197 628,668 636,985 640,779 622,937
Biodiesel 0 889 7,384 34,369 43,114 39,238 41,642 36,005 35,838 34,079 33,524 33,985 35,955
CNG 0 0 0 1,178 2,188 1,999 2,539 2,047 1,972 1,842 1,388 1,170 1,292
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 363 405 497 311 326 364 302
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ʃ 1.A.3.b iii 440,876 570,650 673,926 551,681 611,862 608,527 639,272 650,574 626,504 664,900 672,222 676,297 660,487

source: TREMOD 6.02 [1]

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 4.1) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

However, it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way here.

NOTE: With respect to the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the 2019 EMEP Guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2019) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 2: tier1 EF derived from default values
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1,788
Biodiesel 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2,062
CNG & Biogas NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Petroleum NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
all fuels: buses 0.000019
all fuels: trucks & lorries 0.000016

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iii is key category for NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Until 2005, NOx emissions followed mileage and fuel consumption. Since 2006, in contrast to nearly unchanged fuel consumption, emissions have decreased due to controlled catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from continual tightening of emissions laws.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since the early 1990s, exhaust emissions of NMVOC and carbon monoxide have decreased due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles show charcteristics different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the Party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2019, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2017.

Furthermore, significant re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, effecting the entire time series but with the 1.A.3.b consumptipon totals remaining unaltered.

Table 4: Revised fuel consumption data, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel oil
Submission 2020 440,876 569,761 666,542 516,135 566,561 567,290 594,728 612,117 588,197 628,668 636,985 640,779
Submission 2019 475,063 636,119 738,963 566,855 585,024 585,313 611,440 629,822 606,692 653,426 670,541 686,830
absolute change -34,188 -66,358 -72,422 -50,720 -18,463 -18,023 -16,713 -17,705 -18,495 -24,758 -33,556 -46,051
relative change -7.20% -10.4% -9.80% -8.95% -3.16% -3.08% -2.73% -2.81% -3.05% -3.79% -5.00% -6.70%
Biodiesel
Submission 2020 0 889 7,384 34,369 43,114 39,238 41,642 36,005 35,838 34,079 33,524 33,985
Submission 2019 0 992 8,187 37,746 44,519 40,484 42,812 37,046 36,965 35,421 35,290 36,428
absolute change 0 -104 -802 -3,377 -1,405 -1,247 -1,170 -1,041 -1,127 -1,342 -1,766 -2,444
relative change 0.00 -10.4% -9.8% -8.95% -3.16% -3.08% -2.73% -2.81% -3.05% -3.79% -5.00% -6.71%
CNG
Submission 2020 0 0 0 1,177,93 2,188,41 1,998,88 2,539,26 2,047,14 1,972,15 1,842,02 1,387,53 1,170,38
Submission 2019 0 0 0 781,66 1,304,03 1,201,74 1,167,26 1,024,98 1,047,30 943,01 698,03 592,36
absolute change 0,00 0,00 0,00 396 884 797 1,372 1,022 925 899 689 578
relative change 0.00 0.00 0.00 50,7% 67,8% 66,3% 117,5% 99,7% 88,3% 95,3% 98,8% 97,6%
Biogas
Submission 2020 0 0 0 0 0 0 363 405 497 311 326 364
Submission 2019 0 0 0 0 0 0 167 203 264 159 164 141
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 196 202 233 152 162 223
relative change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 118% 100% 88% 95% 99% 159%
over-all fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles
Submission 2020 440,876 571,260 674,340 551,681 611,862 608,527 639,375 650,687 626,627 665,034 672,375 676,496
Submission 2019 475,063 637,721 747,564 605,383 630,846 626,999 655,587 668,097 644,968 689,950 706,693 723,991
absolute change -34,188 -66,461 -73,224 -53,701 -18,984 -18,472 -16,211 -17,409 -18,340 -24,916 -34,318 -47,496
relative change -7.20% -10.4% -9.79% -8.87% -3.01% -2.95% -2.47% -2.61% -2.84% -3.61% -4.86% -6.56%

Due to the variety of highly specific tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates reported for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant-specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2019a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2019.
2. Keller et al. (2007): Keller, M., Hausberger, S., Matzer, C., Wüthrich, P., & Notter, B.: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 4.1 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 4.1) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2017.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2019: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019; https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-i/view; Copenhagen, 2019.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License