1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 08:40 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses emissions from fuel combustion in trucks, lorries, buses etc. are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles (incl. Buses) T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L & T: NOx, PM2.5, PM10, BC

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and lorries) and buses are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following tables provide an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by these vehicles in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of trucks and lorries, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
HDV: Trucks & Lorries
Diesel oil 412,472 573,298 675,947 520,828 526,690 507,317 512,670 498,838 540,463 541,832 564,107 581,522 561,153 605,034 625,638
Biodiesel 0 894 7,488 34,681 63,358 67,660 50,863 39,987 41,128 37,477 39,498 34,205 34,190 32,798 32,890
Trucks - TOTAL 412,472 574,193 683,436 555,509 590,049 574,977 563,533 538,825 581,590 579,308 603,605 615,727 595,344 637,832 658,528
HDV: Buses
Diesel oil 62,591 62,821 63,016 46,027 44,074 40,157 40,206 42,565 44,561 43,481 47,327 48,284 45,515 48,359 49,642
Biodiesel 0 98 698 3,065 5,302 5,356 3,989 3,412 3,391 3,007 3,314 2,840 2,773 2,622 2,610
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,202 1,167 1,025 1,047 943 886
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 167 203 264 159 143
Buses - TOTAL 62,591 63,529 64,128 49,874 50,487 46,761 45,455 47,315 49,256 47,690 51,974 52,352 49,599 52,083 53,280
HDV: Trucks & Lorries + Buses
Diesel oil 475,063 636,119 738,963 566,855 570,764 547,474 552,876 541,402 585,024 585,313 611,434 629,806 606,668 653,394 675,280
Biodiesel 0 992 8,187 37,746 68,660 73,015 54,852 43,399 44,519 40,484 42,812 37,045 36,964 35,420 35,500
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,202 1,167 1,025 1,047 943 886
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 167 203 264 159 143
NFR TOTAL 475,063 637,721 747,564 605,383 640,535 621,738 608,988 586,140 630,846 626,999 655,580 668,080 644,942 689,915 711,808

source: TREMOD 5.71 [1]

LKW.PNG
bus.PNG

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.3) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: Annual country-specific implied emission factors, in kg/TJ__
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
TRUCKS
Diesel fuels 1
NH3 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
NMVOC 67.28 57.92 41.96 39.71 37.91 32.11 29.41 25.49 20.16 16.98 14.15 11.75 9.91 8.52 7.47 6.56 5.86
NOx 960.09 917.27 848.77 828.98 795.19 674.90 632.16 570.95 491.81 442.05 398.59 361.11 331.45 303.17 269.45 226.54 186.51
SO2 109.29 60.52 13.97 11.64 1.86 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 196.23 171.70 138.64 135.38 133.40 128.43 125.62 123.05 120.36 120.42 118.64 117.15 115.51 111.36 101.30 85.48 70.03
PM 2 38.03 31.63 20.26 19.02 17.71 15.07 14.04 12.43 10.21 8.86 7.70 6.71 5.94 5.31 4.63 3.85 3.15
BC 19.02 16.84 11.93 11.39 10.83 9.82 9.28 8.30 6.90 6.03 5.28 4.65 4.15 3.73 3.25 2.66 2.13
BUSES
Diesel fuels 1
NH3 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
NMVOC 84.15 76.11 56.02 52.62 48.76 38.62 35.82 32.47 28.14 24.94 22.58 20.10 18.35 16.43 14.78 13.31 12.13
NOx 904.65 949.98 878.14 864.33 843.86 765.69 745.86 718.50 678.69 641.74 609.38 578.19 552.08 523.01 487.58 444.05 400.47
SO2 131.71 60.52 13.97 11.64 1.86 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 278.55 233.06 180.16 171.45 162.06 139.61 132.96 126.25 118.25 112.63 109.11 104.49 102.74 100.02 95.78 89.25 82.67
PM 2 52.34 38.02 26.05 24.32 21.98 17.38 16.19 14.79 12.88 11.48 10.40 9.34 8.54 7.72 6.98 6.26 5.64
BC 26.17 19.52 14.18 13.37 12.18 9.87 9.27 8.54 7.55 6.81 6.26 5.68 5.27 4.81 4.39 3.96 3.58
CNG & Biogas 1
NH3 NA NA NA NA NA 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17
NMVOC NA NA NA NA NA 1.20 1.20 1.18 1.18 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.14
NOx NA NA NA NA NA 174.32 174.32 173.48 173.15 172.98 172.99 172.62 172.73 172.46 172.20 171.94 172.12
SO2 NA NA NA NA NA 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
CO NA NA NA NA NA 25.49 25.49 25.18 25.04 24.99 24.96 24.85 24.85 24.75 24.65 24.51 24.45
PM 2 NA NA NA NA NA 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.59
BC NA NA NA NA NA 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
Petroleum
NH3 NA 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.30 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
NMVOC NA 54.21 43.90 41.76 39.41 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
NOx NA 975.13 895.22 880.85 857.08 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
SO2 NA 24.00 13.97 11.64 1.86 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
CO NA 185.17 151.48 145.12 138.79 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
PM 2 NA 32.62 23.39 21.96 20.08 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
BC NA 16.79 12.83 12.19 11.28 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the July 2017 version of (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 3: tier1 EF derived from default values
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1,788
Biodiesel 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2,062
CNG & Biogas NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Petroleum NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
all fuels: buses 0.000019
all fuels: trucks & lorries 0.000016

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iii is key category for NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Until 2005, NOx emissions followed mileage and fuel consumption. Since 2006, in contrast to nearly unchanged fuel consumption, emissions have decreased due to controlled catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from continual tightening of emissions laws.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since the early 1990s, exhaust emissions of NMVOC and carbon monoxide have decreased due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles show charcteristics different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2017, recalculations were carried out due to the routine revision of TREMOD, including some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes, and the revision of National Energy Balance 2015 (NEB).

Table 4: Revised fuel consumption data, in terajoules
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Trucks: Diesel oil
Submission 2018 520,828 526,690 507,317 512,670 498,838 540,463 541,832 564,107 581,522 561,153 605,034
Submission 2017 520,828 526,811 507,453 512,833 499,024 540,671 542,327 564,680 581,980 561,809 593,208
absolute change 0 -120 -136 -163 -186 -208 -495 -573 -458 -655 11,827
relative change 0.00% -0.02% -0.03% -0.03% -0.04% -0.04% -0.09% -0.10% -0.08% -0.12% 1.99%
Trucks: Biodiesel
Submission 2018 34,681 63,358 67,660 50,863 39,987 41,128 37,477 39,498 34,205 34,190 32,798
Submission 2017 34,681 63,373 67,678 50,879 40,002 41,143 37,511 39,538 34,232 34,230 32,350
absolute change 0 -14 -18 -16 -15 -16 -34 -40 -27 -40 448
relative change 0.00% -0.02% -0.03% -0.03% -0.04% -0.04% -0.09% -0.10% -0.08% -0.12% 1.38%
Buses: Diesel oil
Submission 2018 46,027 44,074 40,157 40,206 42,565 44,561 43,481 47,327 48,284 45,515 48,359
Submission 2017 46,027 44,084 40,168 40,219 42,581 44,578 43,230 47,068 48,138 45,238 46,979
absolute change 0 -10 -11 -13 -16 -17 251 259 146 276 1.381
relative change 0.00% -0.02% -0.03% -0.03% -0.04% -0.04% 0.58% 0.55% 0.30% 0.61% 2.94%
Buses: Biodiesel
Submission 2018 3,065 5,302 5,356 3,989 3,412 3,391 3,007 3,314 2,840 2,773 2,622
Submission 2017 3,065 5,303 5,357 3,990 3,413 3,392 2,990 3,296 2,831 2,756 2,562
absolute change 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 17 18 9 17 60
relative change 0.00% -0.02% -0.03% -0.03% -0.04% -0.04% 0.58% 0.55% 0.30% 0.61% 2.32%
Buses: CNG
Submission 2018 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,202 1,167 1,025 1,047 943
Submission 2017 782 1,111 1,248 1,260 1,339 1,304 1,202 1,173 1,030 1,051 946
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -6 -5 -4 -3
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.49% -0.46% -0.38% -0.34%
Buses: Biogas
Submission 2018 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 167 203 264 159
Submission 2017 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 167 203 264 159

Emission factors

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

In addition, the tier1 EMEP/EEA defaults for heavy-metal exhaust emissions have been revised widely based on the information provided in the July 2017 version of the relevant Guidebook chapter, where separate emission factors are provided for emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear on one hand and the co-incineration of lubricants on the other hand:

Although the EMEP Guidebook gives no clear instruction, with this submission, heavy-metal emissions from the unintended co-incineration of lubricants in vehicles and machinery are allocated under NFR 2.G - Other product use.

For CNG used in buses, this revision based on the information provided in the July 2017 Guidebook version results in the replacement of emission estimates for Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn with the notaion key 'NE'.

Table 5: Revised tier1 heavy-metal emission factors, in g/TJ
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn
[g/TJ]
Diesel oil
Submission 2018 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277
absolute change -1.201 -0.232 0.000 0.000 -0.966 -39.439 -1.625 -0.230 -22.858
relative change -99.04% -99.50% 0.00% 0.00% -83.00% -99.66% -99.71% -99.00% -98.20%
Biodiesel 1
Submission 2018 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277
absolute change -1.199 -0.231 0.019 0.000 -0.936 -39.419 -1.624 -0.230 -22.794
relative change -98.89% -99.42% 15.35% 15.35% -80.39% -99.61% -99.67% -98.85% -97.92%
CNG & Biogas
Submission 2018 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Submission 2017 NE 0.290 NE NE 0.202 1.019 0.292 NE 58.197

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

Futhermore, the tier1 EF for PAH exhaust emissions from biodiesel combustion were re-estimated to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel which is 15 per cent below the NCV of fossil diesel oil:

Table 6: Re-estimated tier1 PAH exhaust-emission factors, in mg/TJ
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4
Submission 2018 806 1,343 924 212 3,284
Submission 2017 698 1,164 801 184 2,847
absolute change 107 179 123 28 437
relative change 15% 15% 15% 15% 15%

Emission estimates

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2017a: Knörr, W. et al.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.71, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2017.
2. INFRAS, 2017: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.3 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.3) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2017
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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