1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b ii Light duty vehicles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L & T: NOx, PM2.5, PM10, | L: BC

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for light-duty vehicles (LDV) are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by LDV in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of light duty vehicles, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel oil 22,864 54,127 78,326 88,164 87,087 87,942 89,348 89,346 88,105 90,229 88,430 91,446 93,592 94,263 94,945 96,467
Gasoline 23,875 14,538 13,392 9,052 8,253 7,641 6,511 6,004 5,510 5,262 4,797 4,643 4,571 4,416 4,260 4,264
LPG 0 0 0 0 239 379 414 558 505 543 558 577 575 569 536 469
CNG 0 0 0 407 578 829 1,042 1,239 1,314 1,350 1,366 1,087 1,101 1,151 883 770
Biodiesel 0 84 868 5,871 10,476 11,729 8,864 7,162 6,705 6,241 6,192 5,379 5,702 5,110 4,997 5,116
Bioethanol 0 0 0 62 119 103 124 172 213 216 213 199 199 192 185 182
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 195 215 277 194 208 183
Ʃ 1.A.3.b ii 46,739 68,749 92,586 103,555 106,752 108,623 106,305 104,480 102,352 103,840 101,750 103,544 106,018 105,894 106,014 107,452

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.3) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: Annual country-specific implied tier3 emission factors for light-duty vehicles, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel fuels1
NH3 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.36
NMVOC 74.6 72.3 50.3 28.4 25.1 22.0 17.9 15.7 14.1 12.5 11.1 9.79 8.71 7.86 7.16 6.61
NOx 610 528 477 438 428 412 394 384 376 369 361 355 351 345 338 316
SO2 80.9 60.5 14.0 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 330 337 249 149 135 119 97.9 86.3 77.5 69.1 62.1 56.0 50.8 46.8 43.4 40.8
BC5 57.8 53.0 39.6 26.7 25.2 23.6 21.6 20.6 19.6 18.2 16.3 14.0 11.8 9.87 8.28 6.94
PM3 105 93.5 60.9 37.3 34.7 31.9 28.2 26.4 24.7 22.7 20.2 17.4 14.7 12.3 10.4 8.82
Gasoline fuels1
NH3 0.64 2.43 19.55 21.94 21.16 21.10 22.23 21.46 20.55 19.44 18.36 17.23 16.09 14.92 14.07 13.19
NMVOC2 1,112 599 388 295 289 269 230 208 191 176 166 158 151 148 145 141
NOx 665 584 438 338 334 308 259 229 204 182 167 154 144 138 134 127
SO2 12.8 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 7,982 7,242 5,709 4,636 4,547 4,248 3,710 3,384 3,093 2,853 2,670 2,524 2,405 2,320 2,277 2,198
BC5 0.10 0.13 0.58 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.61 0.59 0.55 0.52 0.48 0.44 0.41 0.37 0.35 0.32
PM3 5.02 4.15 4.49 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.09 2.90 2.74 2.60 2.46 2.39 2.28
TSP4 7.67 4.92 4.49 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.09 2.90 2.74 2.60 2.46 2.39 2.28
Liquefied Petroleum Gas - LPG
NH3 7.06 7.13 7.48 7.87 7.94 8.05 8.00 8.01 8.07 7.93 8.13 8.19
NMVOC 3.51 3.55 3.69 3.84 3.87 3.90 3.89 3.90 3.90 3.88 3.92 3.95
NOx 28.1 28.4 29.3 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 29.7 28.0 26.3 24.7 23.2
SO2 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
CO 304 307 321 337 340 344 342 341 338 329 329 326
BC5 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
PM3 0.47 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.54 0.56 0.57
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) & Biogas6
NH3 7.7 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.4 8.6 8.5 8.7 8.5 8.1 8.4 8.4
NMVOC 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.38
NOx 15.5 15.5 15.6 15.6 15.7 15.5 15.1 14.6 13.9 12.9 12.2 11.6 11.2
SO2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
CO 508 508 506 516 534 543 554 552 555 573 579 590 594
BC5 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19
PM3 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.17 1.19 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.25 1.26 1.28 1.29

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 not including NMVOC from gasoline evaporation!
3 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
4 1990-1997: including additional TSP from combustion of leaded gasoline
5 EF(BC) estimated via f(BC)
6 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for CNG and biogas

NOTE: With respect to the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the July 2017 version of (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, a tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] is used instead.

Table 3: tier1 emission factors
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]p PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1.788
Biodiesel1 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2.062
Gasoline fuels 0.037 0.005 0.200 0.007 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758 96 140 69 158 464
CNG2 & biogas3 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
LPG4 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.0
all fuels 0.000006

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2 no specific default available from [3]; value derived from CNG powered busses
3 no specific default available from [3]; values available for CNG also applied for biogas
4 no specific default available from [3]; value derived from LPG powered passenger cars

Here, the tier1 values for heavy-metal and PAH exhaust emissions have been derived from the following tier1 default values provided in the July 2017 version of the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook:

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b ii is key category for NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

NOx emissions increased steadily until 2002 following the shift to diesel engines. During the last ten years, emissions decline steadily due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2018, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2016. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 3: Revised consumption data as of 2012, in terajoules
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel oil
Submission 2019 88,430 91,446 93,592 94,263 94,945
Submission 2018 88,430 91,446 93,592 94,263 95,494
absolute change 0.00 -0.03 -0.06 -0.01 -548.49
relative change 0.00000% -0.00003% -0.0001% -0.00001% -0.57%
Biodiesel
Submission 2019 6.192 5.379 5.702 5.110 4.997
Submission 2018 6.192 5.379 5.702 5.110 5.020
absolute change 0.00 0.00 -0.01 0.00 -23.30
relative change 0.00% 0.00% -0.0002% 0.00% -0.46%
Gasoline
Submission 2019 4,797 4,643 4,571 4,416 4,260
Submission 2018 4,797 4,643 4,571 4,416 4,284
absolute change -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 -24.39
relative change -0.0002% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.57%
Biogasoline
Submission 2019 213 199 199 192 185
Submission 2018 213 199 199 192 186
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.05
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.56%
Liquefied Petroleum Gas - LPG
Submission 2019 558 577 575 569 536
Submission 2018 558 577 575 569 625
absolute change 0.00 0.00 -0.01 0.00 -88.96
relative change 0.00% 0.00% -0.002% 0.00% -14.24%
Compressed Natural Gas - CNG
Submission 2019 1.366 1.087 1.101 1.151 883
Submission 2018 1.367 1.087 1.102 1.153 1.136
absolute change -0.62 -0.44 -1.12 -1.72 -253.35
relative change -0.05% -0.04% -0.10% -0.15% -22.29%
Biogas
Submission 2019 195 215 277 194 208
Submission 2018 195 215 278 194 183
absolute change -0.09 -0.09 -0.28 -0.28 24.82
relative change -0.05% -0.04% -0.10% -0.15% 13.58%

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates reported for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2018a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.81, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2018.
2. Keller et al., (2007): Keller, M., Hausberger, S., Matzer, C., Wüthrich, P., & Notter, B.: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.3 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.3) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2017.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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