1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles

Last updated on 31 Mar 2020 09:42 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b ii Light duty vehicles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L & T: NOx, PM2.5, PM10, BC

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for light-duty vehicles (LDV) are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by LDV in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of light duty vehicles, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel oil 41,153 89,124 116,634 121,822 105,582 105,122 108,097 109,289 108,711 111,764 110,034 115,424 118,957 126,159 134,558 143,170 143,928
Gasoline 31,432 19,932 16,561 10,726 9,665 8,888 7,792 7,367 6,899 6,646 6,117 6,022 5,989 6,042 6,145 6,354 6,442
CNG 0 0 0 341 485 707 928 1,128 1,218 1,267 1,179 953 981 1,073 858 771 900
Biodiesel 0 139 1,292 8,112 12,701 14,020 10,724 8,761 8,273 7,730 7,704 6,789 7,248 6,839 7,082 7,593 8,307
Biogasoline 0 0 0 74 139 120 149 210 267 272 271 258 260 262 267 268 290
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 168 189 247 181 202 240 210
Ʃ 1.A.3.b ii 72,585 109,194 134,487 141,075 128,572 128,857 127,690 126,756 125,368 127,680 125,473 129,636 133,683 140,556 149,111 158,395 160,078

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 4.1) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

However, it is not possible to present these highly specific tier3 values here in a comprehendible way .

NOTE: With respect to the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the 2019 EMEP Guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2019) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, a tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] is used instead.

Table 3: tier1 emission factors
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]p PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1.788
Biodiesel1 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2.062
Gasoline fuels 0.037 0.005 0.200 0.007 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758 96 140 69 158 464
CNG2 & biogas3 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
LPG4 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.0
all fuels 0.000006

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2 no specific default available from [3]; value derived from CNG powered busses
3 no specific default available from [3]; values available for CNG also applied for biogas
4 no specific default available from [3]; value derived from LPG powered passenger cars

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b ii is key category for NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

NOx emissions increased steadily until 2002 following the shift to diesel engines. During the last ten years, emissions decline steadily due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2019, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2017.

Furthermore, several re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 3: Revised consumption data, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel oil
Submission 2020 41,153 89,124 116,634 121,822 108,711 111,764 110,034 115,424 118,957 126,159 134,558 143,170
Submission 2019 22,864 54,127 78,326 88,164 88,105 90,229 88,430 91,446 93,592 94,263 94,945 96,467
absolute change 18,289 34,996 38,308 33,659 20,606 21,535 21,604 23,978 25,365 31,896 39,613 46,702
relative change 80.0% 64.7% 48.9% 38.2% 23.4% 23.9% 24.4% 26.2% 27.1% 33.8% 41.7% 48.4%
Biodiesel
Submission 2020 0.00 139 1,292 8,112 8,273 7,730 7,704 6,789 7,248 6,839 7,082 7,593
Submission 2019 0.00 84 868 5,871 6,705 6,241 6,192 5,379 5,702 5,110 4,997 5,116
absolute change 0.00 55 424 2,241 1,568 1,490 1,513 1,410 1,545 1,729 2,085 2,477
relative change 0.00 64.7% 48.9% 38.2% 23.4% 23.9% 24.4% 26.2% 27.1% 33.8% 41.7% 48.4%
Gasoline
Submission 2020 31,432 19,932 16,561 10,726 6,899 6,646 6,117 6,022 5,989 6,042 6,145 6,354
Submission 2019 23,875 14,538 13,392 9,052 5,510 5,262 4,797 4,643 4,571 4,416 4,260 4,264
absolute change 7,557 5,394 3,168 1,674 1,389 1,384 1,320 1,379 1,418 1,626 1,885 2,090
relative change 31.7% 37.1% 23.7% 18.5% 25.2% 26.3% 27.5% 29.7% 31.0% 36.8% 44.2% 49.0%
Biogasoline
Submission 2020 0.00 0.00 0.00 74 267 272 271 258 260 262 267 268
Submission 2019 0.00 0.00 0.00 62 213 216 213 199 199 192 185 182
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.5 53.7 56.7 58.5 59.1 61.7 70.5 81.9 86.4
relative change 0.00 0.00 0.00 18.5% 25.2% 26.3% 27.5% 29.7% 31.0% 36.8% 44.2% 47.6%
LPG
Submission 2020 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Submission 2019 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 505 543 558 577 575 569 536 469
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -505 -543 -558 -577 -575 -569 -536 -469
relative change -100% -100% -100% -100% -100% -100% -100% -100%
CNG
Submission 2020 0.00 0.00 0.00 341 1,218 1,267 1,179 953 981 1,073 858 771
Submission 2019 0.00 0.00 0.00 407 1,314 1,350 1,366 1,087 1,101 1,151 883 770
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 -65.7 -95.8 -82.4 -188 -133 -120 -78.2 -25.2 0.72
relative change 0.00 0.00 0.00 -16.1% -7.29% -6.11% -13.7% -12.3% -10.9% -6.79% -2.85% 0.09%
Biogas
Submission 2020 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 168 189 247 181 202 240
Submission 2019 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 195 215 277 194 208 183
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -26.8 -26.4 -30.2 -13.2 -5.92 56.7
relative change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -13.7% -12.3% -10.9% -6.79% -2.85% 31.0%

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates reported for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant-specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2019a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2019.
2. Keller et al., (2007): Keller, M., Hausberger, S., Matzer, C., Wüthrich, P., & Notter, B.: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 4.1 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 4.1) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2019.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2019: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019; https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-i/view; Copenhagen, 2019.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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