1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 08:39 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b ii Light duty vehicles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L & T: NOx, PM2.5, PM10, BC

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for light-duty vehicles (LDV) are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by LDV in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of light duty vehicles, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel oil 22,864 54,127 78,326 88,164 87,085 87,942 89,348 89,346 88,105 90,229 88,430 91,446 93,592 94,263 95,494
Gasoline 23,875 14,538 13,392 9,052 8,253 7,641 6,511 6,004 5,510 5,262 4,797 4,643 4,571 4,416 4,284
LPG 0 0 0 0 239 379 414 558 505 543 558 577 575 569 625
CNG 0 0 0 407 578 829 1,042 1,239 1,314 1,350 1,367 1,087 1,102 1,153 1,136
Biodiesel 0 84 868 5,871 10,476 11,729 8,864 7,162 6,705 6,241 6,192 5,379 5,702 5,110 5,020
Bioethanol 0 0 0 62 119 103 124 172 213 216 213 199 199 192 186
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 195 215 278 194 183
1.A.3.b ii TOTAL 279,793 396,333 487,763 529,713 528,510 525,600 518,728 515,968 517,508 521,052 524,141 422,389 318,844 212,825 106,928

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.3) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: Annual country-specific implied emission factors for light-duty vehicles, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel fuels 1
NH3 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.36
NMVOC 74.60 72.27 50.32 28.41 25.11 21.97 17.92 15.75 14.07 12.45 11.05 9.79 8.71 7.86 7.16
NOx 610.26 527.82 477.40 438.25 428.18 412.48 393.61 383.88 375.54 368.68 360.53 354.59 350.77 345.20 338.23
SO2 80.85 60.52 13.97 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 330.46 337.07 249.18 148.73 134.63 118.68 97.86 86.30 77.47 69.13 62.10 55.97 50.79 46.79 43.45
BC 57.82 53.04 39.55 26.67 25.22 23.61 21.61 20.56 19.57 18.21 16.32 14.02 11.80 9.87 8.28
PM 105.12 93.54 60.90 37.29 34.72 31.89 28.21 26.35 24.70 22.71 20.23 17.37 14.67 12.35 10.43
Gasoline fuels 1
NH3 0.64 2.43 19.55 21.94 21.16 21.10 22.23 21.46 20.55 19.44 18.36 17.23 16.09 14.92 14.07
NMVOC 2 1,112.24 599.31 388.23 295.03 289.16 269.07 230.04 208.09 190.59 176.05 166.33 158.42 151.35 147.60 145.26
NOx 665.19 584.50 437.68 338.43 333.83 307.60 258.83 228.85 203.62 182.17 166.69 153.87 143.61 137.69 133.53
SO2 12.85 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 7,981.70 7,242.15 5,708.84 4,635.73 4,547.35 4,248.49 3,710.12 3,383.51 3,093.50 2,853.42 2,669.59 2,524.16 2,405.04 2,319.84 2,276.56
BC 0.10 0.13 0.58 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.61 0.59 0.55 0.52 0.48 0.44 0.41 0.37 0.35
PM 5.02 4.15 4.49 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.09 2.90 2.74 2.60 2.46 2.39
TSP 7.67 4.92 4.49 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.09 2.90 2.74 2.60 2.46 2.39
LPG
NH3 7.06 7.13 7.48 7.87 7.94 8.05 8.00 8.01 8.07 7.93 8.13
NMVOC 3.51 3.55 3.69 3.84 3.87 3.90 3.89 3.90 3.90 3.88 3.92
NOx 28.11 28.38 29.31 30.09 30.22 30.28 30.39 29.74 27.96 26.26 24.68
SO2 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
CO 303.96 307.20 321.32 337.04 339.85 343.78 342.30 341.09 337.65 329.15 329.24
BC 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
PM 0.47 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.54 0.56
CNG & Biogas 1
NH3 7.70 7.70 7.92 8.15 8.41 8.45 8.55 8.54 8.65 8.49 8.11 8.34
NMVOC 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.37
NOx 15.53 15.53 15.56 15.63 15.66 15.49 15.06 14.60 13.92 12.97 12.35 11.78
SO2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
CO 507.85 507.83 506.13 516.26 534.39 543.46 553.53 552.07 555.06 572.53 578.46 589.33
BC 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.19
PM 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.17 1.19 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.25 1.26 1.28

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 not including NMVOC from gasoline evaporation!
3 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
4 1990-1997: including additional TSP from combustion of leaded gasoline

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the July 2017 version of (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, a tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] is used instead.

Table 3: tier1 emisison factors
As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAHs 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel fuels 0.002 0.001 0.198 0.133 0.123 0.005 0.012 0.002 0.419 368 386 203 368 1.324
Gasoline fuels 0.007 0.005 0.145 0.103 0.200 0.053 0.037 0.005 0.758 96 140 69 158 464
CNGa NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
LPGb NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 4.348 0.000 4.348 4.348 13.043
Biogasc NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
all fuels 0.0000056

a: no specific default available from [3]; value derived from LPG powered passenger cars
b: no specific default available from [3]; value derived from CNG powered busses
c: no specific default available from [3]; value derived from CNG powered busses

Here, the tier1 values for heavy-metal and PAH exhaust emissions have been derived from the following tier1 default values provided in the July 2017 version of the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook:

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b ii is key category for NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

NOx emissions increased steadily until 2002 following the shift to diesel engines. During the last ten years, emissions decline steadily due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2017, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2015. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 3: Revised consumption data, in terajoules
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel oil
Submission 2018 87,085 87,942 89,348 89,346 88,105 90,229 88,430 91,446 93,592 94,263
Submission 2017 86,974 87,828 89,228 89,222 87,980 90,101 88,294 91,309 93,451 94,644
absolute change 111.5 114.5 120.6 123.9 125.2 127.9 136.1 136.1 141.3 -380.7
relative change 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% -0.40%
Biodiesel
Submission 2018 10,476 11,729 8,864 7,162 6,705 6,241 6,192 5,379 5,702 5,110
Submission 2017 10,463 11,713 8,852 7,152 6,695 6,232 6,182 5,371 5,694 5,161
absolute change 13.4 15.3 12.0 9.9 9.5 8.8 9.5 8.0 8.6 -51.5
relative change 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% -1.00%
Gasoline
Submission 2018 8,253 7,641 6,511 6,004 5,510 5,262 4,797 4,643 4,571 4,416
Submission 2017 8,242 7,631 6,503 5,996 5,503 5,254 4,789 4,636 4,564 4,435
absolute change 10.6 9.9 8.8 8.3 7.8 7.5 7.4 6.9 6.9 -19.2
relative change 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% -0.43%
Bioethanol
Submission 2018 119 103 124 172 213 216 213 199 199 192
Submission 2017 119 103 124 171 213 215 212 199 198 192
absolute change 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 -0.8
relative change 0.13% 0.14% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.16% 0.15% 0.16% -0.43%
Liquefied Petroleum Gas - LPG
Submission 2018 239 379 414 558 505 543 558 577 575 569
Submission 2017 239 379 414 558 505 543 558 577 575 596
absolute change 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -27.4
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -4.60%
Compressed Natural Gas - CNG
Submission 2018 578 829 1,042 1,239 1,314 1,350 1,367 1,087 1,102 1,153
Submission 2017 578 829 1,042 1,239 1,314 1,350 1,366 1,086 1,101 1,152
absolute change 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 1.08 0.90 0.84 0.86
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.08% 0.08% 0.08% 0.07%

Furthermore, the use of biogas is reported for the first time with consumption data being available from 2012 onwards.

Emission factors

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

In addition, the tier1 EMEP/EEA defaults for heavy-metal exhaust emissions have been revised widely based on the information provided in the July 2017 version of the relevant Guidebook chapter, where separate emission factors are provided for emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear on one hand and the co-incineration of lubricants on the other hand:

Although the EMEP Guidebook gives no clear instruction, with this submission, heavy-metal emissions from the unintended co-incineration of lubricants in vehicles and machinery are allocated under NFR 2.G - Other product use.

For CNG and LPG, this revision based on the information provided in the July 2017 Guidebook version results in the replacement of emission estimates for Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn with the notation key 'NE'.

Table 4: Revised tier1 heavy-metal emission factors, in g/TJ
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn
[g/TJ]
Diesel oil
Submission 2018 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277
absolute change -1.201 -0.232 0.000 0.000 -0.966 -39.439 -1.625 -0.230 -22.858
relative change -99.04% -99.50% 0.00% 0.00% -83.00% -99.66% -99.71% -99% -98%
Biodiesel 1
Submission 2018 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277
absolute change -1.199 -0.231 0.019 0.000 -0.936 -39.419 -1.624 -0.230 -22.794
relative change -98.89% -99.42% 15.35% 15.35% -80.39% -99.61% -99.67% -98.85% -97.92%
Gasoline fuels
Submission 2018 0.051 2.099 0.200 0.007 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758
Submission 2017 0.762 0.230 0.200 0.007 1.148 39.042 1.608 0.230 22.966
absolute change -0.712 1.869 0.000 0.000 -1.004 -38.939 -1.555 -0.225 -22.208
relative change -93.34% 813.96% 0.00% 0.00% -87.40% -99.74% -96.71% -98.00% -96.70%
CNG & Biogas
Submission 2018 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Submission 2017 NE 0.290 NE NE 0.202 1.019 0.292 NE 58.197
absolute change -0.290 -0.202 -1.019 -0.292 -58.197
relative change -100% -100% -100% -100% -100%
LPG
Submission 2018 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Submission 2017 NE 0.230 NE NE 0.202 0.811 0.233 NE 46.304
absolute change -0.230 -0.202 -0.811 -46.304
relative change -100% -100% -100% -100%

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

Futhermore, the tier1 EF for PAH exhaust emissions from biodiesel combustion were re-estimated to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel which is 15 per cent below the NCV of fossil diesel oil:

Table 5: Re-estimated tier1 PAH exhaust-emission factors, in mg/TJ
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4
Submission 2018 806 1,343 924 212 3,284
Submission 2017 698 1,164 801 184 2,847
absolute change 107 179 123 28 437
relative change 15% 15% 15% 15% 15%

Emission estimates

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2017a: Knörr, W. et al.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.71, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2017.
2. INFRAS, 2017: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.3 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.3) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2017
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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