1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars emissions from fuel combustion in passenger cars (PCs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b i Passenger Cars T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L & T: NOx, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5 & PM10, BC, Pb

Method

Detailed information on the methods applied is provided in the main chapter on 1.A.3.b - Road Transport.

Activity data

Specific consumption data for passenger cars is generated within TREMOD [1].

The following table gives an overview of annual amounts of the fuels consumed by passenger cars in Germany.

Table 1: Annual passenger car fuel consumption, in terajoule
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel oil 237,993 273,767 290,816 423,601 424,201 438,571 460,399 484,191 494,934 521,710 523,848 562,369 596,544 601,100 627,995 639,270
Gasoline 1,284,554 1,268,816 1,204,479 963,174 902,275 868,174 829,998 805,565 768,521 764,508 719,363 717,967 720,801 685,615 686,310 688,601
LPG 138 138 94 2,357 4,366 8,563 15,238 23,284 21,318 23,070 22,974 22,500 20,889 18,394 16,263 13,101
CNG 0 0 0 1,939 2,756 3,768 4,842 5,866 6,150 6,220 6,336 5,277 5,324 5,313 4,267 3,836
Biodiesel 0 427 3,222 28,207 51,029 58,491 45,677 38,813 37,663 36,085 36,679 33,079 36,347 32,585 33,050 33,906
Bioethanol 0 0 0 6,617 13,006 11,726 15,869 23,015 29,693 31,337 31,878 30,777 31,346 29,736 29,811 29,312
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 905 1,044 1,342 896 1,003 911
Ʃ 1.A.3.b i 1,522,685 1,543,148 1,498,610 1,425,894 1,397,634 1,389,293 1,372,024 1,380,735 1,358,279 1,382,930 1,341,983 1,373,014 1,412,591 1,373,639 1,398,700 1,408,937

Here, the following charts underline the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel-powered passenger cars, that started around 1999/2000.

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.3) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (= total emissions per pollutant and fuel / annual consumption of specific fuel.)

Table 2: selected annual fuel-specific IEF for passenger cars, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Gasoline fuels1
NH3 0.66 12.6 23.1 21.3 21.3 20.8 20.0 18.9 17.8 17.1 16.5 15.8 15.3 15.0 15.0 14.9
NMVOC2 731 281 151 106 99.4 94.8 86.5 82.1 78.4 76.0 74.1 72.4 71.3 70.5 70.1 69.5
NOx 616 342 217 142 130 119 99.2 87.8 77.6 70.7 64.6 59.3 55.1 51.8 49.1 46.5
SO2 11.8 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 4,698 2,340 1,397 1,013 948 911 844 802 763 741 720 700 687 678 677 673
BC5 0.07 0.30 0.44 0.36 0.35 0.34 0.31 0.28 0.25 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.17
PM3 3.67 2.75 2.48 1.87 1.82 1.74 1.60 1.49 1.37 1.31 1.24 1.18 1.14 1.10 1.09 1.07
TSP4 5.58 3.03 2.48 1.87 1.82 1.74 1.60 1.49 1.37 1.31 1.24 1.18 1.14 1.10 1.09 1.07
Diesel fuels1
NH3 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.44
NMVOC 45.5 36.8 29.1 18.6 16.5 15.0 13.5 12.5 11.7 11.0 10.4 9.93 9.64 9.62 9.85 10.1
NOx 273 274 304 308 302 298 294 293 298 309 320 329 334 332 324 313
SO2 80.8 60.5 14.0 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 250 205 152 87.9 78.8 71.5 64.3 59.8 56.3 53.1 50.4 48.3 46.7 45.6 44.6 44.0
BC5 29.6 30.4 28.8 18.3 15.5 13.3 11.2 9.53 8.29 7.19 6.07 5.13 4.35 3.72 3.22 2.80
PM3 48.8 46.1 39.5 23.2 19.6 16.8 14.1 12.1 10.5 9.20 7.86 6.74 5.82 5.09 4.49 4.00
Liquefied Petroleum Gas - LPG
NH3 0.84 6.92 37.3 32.6 28.6 26.7 23.5 22.1 21.6 21.3 20.9 20.5 20.2 19.9 19.8 19.6
NMVOC 329 283 49.6 9.73 8.63 8.22 7.50 7.24 7.17 7.10 6.97 6.88 6.82 6.78 6.77 6.75
NOx 1,047 906 200 66.1 58.7 56.5 52.6 50.9 49.9 49.3 48.1 46.7 45.6 44.8 44.0 43.2
SO2 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
CO 2,043 1,812 662 509 452 458 456 456 453 455 452 449 448 447 452 453
BC5 0.24 0.33 0.75 0.56 0.47 0.43 0.36 0.33 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28
PM3 0.97 1.31 3.01 2.41 2.05 1.90 1.64 1.53 1.48 1.47 1.43 1.40 1.38 1.37 1.37 1.36
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) & Biogas6
NH3 10.6 10.6 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.8 11.0 11.1 11.4 11.6
NMVOC 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.52
NOx 40.6 40.6 40.6 40.4 40.3 39.6 37.6 35.1 33.3 31.7 30.3 29.3 28.2
SO2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
CO 258 258 262 261 261 259 258 255 252 251 252 255 257
BC5 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11
PM3 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.75

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 not including NMVOC from gasoline evaporation!
3 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
4 1990-1997: including additional TSP from combustion of leaded gasoline
5 EF(BC) estimated via f(BC)
6 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for CNG and biogas

NOTE: With respect to the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, a tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] is used.

Table 3: Overview of tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.0012 0.123 0.0023 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1,788
Biodiesel1 0.013 0.0013 0.142 0.0027 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2,062
Gasoline fuels 0.037 0.0046 0.200 0.0069 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758 126 181 90 204 602
CNG2 & biogas3 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
LPG4 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.04
all fuels 0.000002

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2: no specific default available from [3]; value derived from CNG powered busses
3: no specific default available from [3]; values available for CNG also applied for biogas
4: no specific default available from [3]; value derived from LPG powered passenger cars

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b i is key category for NH3, NOx, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5 and PM10.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, NMVOC, and carbon monoxide have decreased sharply due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2 )

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from passenger cars show charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate Matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

(from fuel combustion only; no wear/abrasion included)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies. The table below shows the evolution of the limit value for particle emissions from passenger cars with diesel engines.

With this submission, Black Carbon (BC) emissions are reported for the first time. Here, EF are estimated based on as fractions of PM as provided in [3].
Due to this fuel-specific fractions, the trend of BC emissions reflects the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel ("dieselisation").

Table: EURO norms and their effect on limit values of PM emissions from diesel passenger cars
exhaust emission standard (EURO norm) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6
in force for type approval since: 1 Jul 1992 1 Jan 1996 1 Jan 2000 1 Jan 2005 1 Sep 2009 1 Sep 2014
in force for initial registration since 1 Jan 1993 1 Jan 1997 1 Jan 2001 1 Jan 2006 1 Jan 2011 1 Jan 2015
resulting PM limit value in [mg/km] 180 80/1001 50 25 5 5

1 for direct injection engines

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2018, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2016.
In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted.

Table 3: Revised consumption data, in terajoule
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel oil
Submission 2019 494,934 521,710 523,848 562,369 596,544 601,100 627,995
Submission 2018 494,934 521,710 523,854 562,385 596,568 601,132 627,498
absolute change 0.00 0.00 -6.37 -15.9 -23.7 -32.4 497
relative change 0.00% 0.000% -0.001% -0.003% -0.004% -0.005% 0.079%
Biodiesel
Submission 2019 37,663 36,085 36,679 33,079 36,347 32,585 33,050
Submission 2018 37,663 36,085 36,680 33,080 36,348 32,587 32,988
absolute change 0.00 0.00 -0.44 -0.94 -1.44 -1.75 62.8
relative change 0.00% 0.000% -0.001% -0.003% -0.004% -0.005% 0.190%
Gasoline
Submission 2019 768,521 764,508 719,363 717,967 720,801 685,615 686,310
Submission 2018 768,521 764,508 719,363 717,967 720,801 685,615 685,673
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 638
relative change 0.00% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.093%
Bioethanol
Submission 2019 29,693 31,337 31,878 30,777 31,346 29,736 29,811
Submission 2018 29,693 31,337 31,878 30,777 31,346 29,736 29,784
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 27
relative change 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.091%
LPG
Submission 2019 21,318 23,070 22,974 22,500 20,889 18,394 16,263
Submission 2018 21,318 23,070 22,974 22,500 20,889 18,394 18,837
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.010 0.000 0.000 0.010 -2,574
relative change 0.00% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.0001% -13.665%
CNG
Submission 2019 6,150 6,220 6,336 5,277 5,324 5,313 4,267
Submission 2018 6,150 6,220 6,335 5,277 5,323 5,311 5,446
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.51 0.38 0.94 1.46 -1,179
relative change 0.000% 0.000% 0.008% 0.007% 0.018% 0.027% -21.65%
Biogas
Submission 2019 0 0 905 1,044 1,342 896 1,003
Submission 2018 0 0 905 1,044 1,341 896 876
absolute change 0 0 0,08 0,07 0,24 0,25 127
relative change 0.009% 0.007% 0.018% 0.028% 14.52%

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

Emission estimates

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2018a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.81, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2018.
2. Keller et al., (2017): Keller, M., Hausberger, S., Matzer, C., Wüthrich, P., & Notter, B.: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.3 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.3) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2017.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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