1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars

Last updated on 20 Mar 2020 10:00 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars emissions from fuel combustion in passenger cars (PCs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b i Passenger Cars T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D L & T: NOx, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5 & PM10, BC, Pb | L PCDD/F

Method

Detailed information on the methods applied is provided in the main chapter on 1.A.3.b - Road Transport.

Activity data

Specific consumption data for passenger cars is generated within TREMOD [1].

The following table gives an overview of annual amounts of the fuels consumed by passenger cars in Germany.

Table 1: Annual passenger car fuel consumption, in terajoule
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Diesel oil 253,892 305,128 324,929 440,663 492,791 518,198 518,957 556,096 589,674 593,962 621,938 641,476 610,293
Gasoline 1,275,916 1,260,078 1,196,370 958,621 765,478 762,566 718,328 717,580 720,676 684,853 684,954 694,769 668,337
LPG 138 138 94 2,357 21,823 23,613 23,532 23,077 21,464 18,963 16,799 15,377 13,570
CNG 0 0 0 1,608 5,361 5,505 5,151 4,389 4,519 4,492 3,603 3,257 3,980
Biodiesel 0 476 3,600 29,343 37,500 35,842 36,337 32,710 35,928 32,198 32,732 34,022 35,226
Biogasoline 0 0 0 6,585 29,575 31,257 31,833 30,760 31,340 29,703 29,752 29,291 30,051
Biogas 0 0 0 0 0 0 736 868 1,139 757 847 1,013 930
Ʃ 1.A.3.b i 1,529,946 1,565,820 1,524,993 1,439,177 1,352,529 1,376,981 1,334,873 1,365,479 1,404,740 1,364,927 1,390,625 1,419,204 1,362,386

Here, the following charts underline the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel-powered passenger cars, that started around 1999/2000.

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 4.1) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

However, it is not possible to present these highly specific tier3 values in a comprehendible way here.

NOTE: With respect to the country-specific emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2019) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, a tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] is used.

Table 3: Overview of tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]p PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.0012 0.123 0.0023 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1,788
Biodiesel1 0.013 0.0013 0.142 0.0027 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2,062
Gasoline fuels 0.037 0.0046 0.200 0.0069 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758 126 181 90 204 602
CNG2 & biogas3 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
LPG4 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.04
all fuels 0.000002

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel
2: no specific default available from [3]; value derived from CNG powered busses
3: no specific default available from [3]; values available for CNG also applied for biogas
4: no specific default available from [3]; value derived from LPG powered passenger cars

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b i is key category for NH3, NOx, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5 and PM10.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, NMVOC, and carbon monoxide have decreased sharply due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2 )

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from passenger cars show charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate Matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

(from fuel combustion only; no wear/abrasion included)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies. The table below shows the evolution of the limit value for particle emissions from passenger cars with diesel engines.

With this submission, Black Carbon (BC) emissions are reported for the first time. Here, EF are estimated based on as fractions of PM as provided in [3].
Due to this fuel-specific fractions, the trend of BC emissions reflects the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel ("dieselisation").

Table: EURO norms and their effect on limit values of PM emissions from diesel passenger cars
exhaust emission standard (EURO norm) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6
in force for type approval since: 1 Jul 1992 1 Jan 1996 1 Jan 2000 1 Jan 2005 1 Sep 2009 1 Sep 2014
in force for initial registration since 1 Jan 1993 1 Jan 1997 1 Jan 2001 1 Jan 2006 1 Jan 2011 1 Jan 2015
resulting PM limit value in [mg/km] 180 80/1001 50 25 5 5

1 for direct injection engines

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2019, specific activity data for passenger cars were revised within TREMOD for all years due to re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes.
In contrast, the over-all fuel consumption in road transport remains unaltered, with the only changes occuring for 2017 due to the implementation of the now finalised NEB 2017 (see superordinate chapter).

Table 3: Revised fuel consumption data, in terajoule
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel oil
Submission 2020 253,892 305,128 324,929 440,663 492,791 518,198 518,957 556,096 589,674 593,962 621,938 641,476
Submission 2019 237,993 273,767 290,816 423,601 494,934 521,710 523,848 562,369 596,544 601,100 627,995 639,270
absolute change 15,899 31,361 34,113 17,062 -2,143 -3,512 -4,891 -6,273 -6,870 -7,138 -6,057 2,206
relative change 6.68% 11.5% 11.73% 4.03% -0.43% -0.67% -0.93% -1.12% -1.15% -1.19% -0.96% 0.35%
Biodiesel
Submission 2020 0 476 3,600 29,343 37,500 35,842 36,337 32,710 35,928 32,198 32,732 34,022
Submission 2019 0 427 3,222 28,207 37,663 36,085 36,679 33,079 36,347 32,585 33,050 33,906
absolute change 0 49 378 1,136 -163 -243 -342 -369 -419 -387 -319 116
relative change 11.5% 11.7% 4.03% -0.43% -0.67% -0.93% -1.12% -1.15% -1.19% -0.96% 0.34%
Gasoline
Submission 2020 1,275,916 1,260,078 1,196,370 958,621 765,478 762,566 718,328 717,580 720,676 684,853 684,954 694,769
Submission 2019 1,284,554 1,268,816 1,204,479 963,174 768,521 764,508 719,363 717,967 720,801 685,615 686,310 688,601
absolute change -8,639 -8,738 -8,108 -4,552 -3,043 -1,942 -1,035 -388 -124 -763 -1,356 6,169
relative change -0.67% -0.69% -0.67% -0.47% -0.40% -0.25% -0.14% -0.05% -0.02% -0.11% -0.20% 0.90%
Biogasoline
Submission 2020 0 0 0 6,585 29,575 31,257 31,833 30,760 31,340 29,703 29,752 29,291
Submission 2019 0 0 0 6,617 29,693 31,337 31,878 30,777 31,346 29,736 29,811 29,312
absolute change 0 0 0 -31 -118 -80 -46 -17 -5 -33 -59 -21
relative change -0,47% -0,40% -0,25% -0,14% -0,05% -0,02% -0,11% -0,20% -0,07%
LPG
Submission 2020 138 138 94 2,357 21,823 23,613 23,532 23,077 21,464 18,963 16,799 15,377
Submission 2019 138 138 94 2,357 21,318 23,070 22,974 22,500 20,889 18,394 16,263 13,101
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 505 543 558 577 575 569 536 2,276
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 2.37% 2.35% 2.43% 2.56% 2.75% 3.09% 3.30% 17.4%
CNG
Submission 2020 0 0 0 1,608 5,361 5,505 5,151 4,389 4,519 4,492 3,603 3,257
Submission 2019 0 0 0 1,939 6,150 6,220 6,336 5,277 5,324 5,313 4,267 3,836
absolute change 0 0 0 -331 -789 -715 -1.184 -889 -805 -821 -664 -579
relative change -17.1% -12.8% -11.5% -18.7% -16.8% -15.1% -15.5% -15.6% -15.1%
Biogas
Submission 2020 0 0 0 0 0 0 736 868 1,139 757 847 1,013
Submission 2019 0 0 0 0 0 0 905 1,044 1,342 896 1,003 911
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 -169 -176 -203 -138 -156 101
relative change -18.7% -16.8% -15.1% -15.5% -15.6% 11.1%

source: own estimates based on TREMOD [1]

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.

Emission estimates

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant-specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2019a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 6.02, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2019.
2. Keller et al., (2019): Keller, M., Hausberger, S., Matzer, C., Wüthrich, P., & Notter, B.: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 4.1 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 4.1) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, 2019.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2019: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019; https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/1-energy/1-a-combustion/1-a-3-b-i/view; Copenhagen, 2019.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
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