1.A.3.b vii - Road Transport: Automobile Road Abrasion

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b vii - Road Transport: Automobile Road Abrasion emissions from road abrasion in Road Transport are reported. Therefore, this sub-category is an important source for a) particle emissions and b) emissions of heavy metals, POPs etc. included in these particles.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b vii Automobile road abrasion T1, T3 NS, M CS L & T: TSP, PM2.5 | L: PM10


Activity Data

For detailed mileage data, please see superordinate chapter.

Emission factors

The tier1 emission factors used here have been derived within a literature study in 2006. During this study, average amounts of particulate wear per km ( = EFPM) were derived from which annual amounts of PM emissions can be estimated as follows:

\begin{gather} EM(PM)_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} = EF(PM)_\text{ specific, per km} \cdot Mileage_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} \end{gather}
Table 1: Average abrasion rates [mg TSP / vehicle km] for different types of road vehicles
Vehicle type Ø Abrasion rate
Passenger Cars 15
Motorcycles 6
Mopeds 6
Light Duty Vehicles 15
Heavy Duty Vehicles 76
thereof: Trucks 76
thereof: Buses 15

Based on average contents of heavy metals per gram of emitted particulate road surface matter (also derived during the literature study), emission factors for HM are estimated as follows:

\begin{gather} EF(HM)_\text{ per km, type of vehicle} = EM(PM)_\text{ per km, type of vehicle} \cdot ØHMcontent_\text{ road surface} \end{gather}
Table 2: Average heavy metal contents [mg HM / kg TSP] in abrasive particulate matter from road surface
HM Ø Metal content
Cd 0.21
Pb 4.10
Hg 0.00
As 2.60
Cr 72.00
Cu 2.45
Ni 38.00
Se 0.00
Zn 86.00

From these PM-based emission factors, emission estimates for HM are estimated as follows:

\begin{gather} EM(HM)_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} = EF(HM)_\text{ per km, type of vehicle} \cdot Mileage_\text{ annual, type of vehicle} \end{gather}
Table 3: Overview of the tier1 emission factors applied
Vehicle type PCs LDVs HDVs Buses 2Ws
Particulate Matter [mg/km]
TSP 15.000 15.000 76.000 76.000 6.000
PM10 7.500 7.500 38.000 34.200 3.000
PM2.5 4.050 4.050 20.520 20.520 1.620
Heavy Metals [µg/km]
Priority HM
Pb 0.062 0.062 0.312 0.062 0.025
Hg 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Cd 0.003 0.003 0.016 0.003 0.001
Other HM
As 0.039 0.039 0.198 0.039 0.016
Cr 1.080 1.080 5.472 1.080 0.432
Cu 0.037 0.037 0.186 0.037 0.015
Ni 0.570 0.570 2.888 0.570 0.228
Se 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Zn 1.290 1.290 6.536 1.290 0.516

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b vii - Emissions from road abrasion is key category for emissions of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP regarding these emissions' level.

Particulate Matter - PM2.5, PM10 & TSP

(from wear/abrasion only; no fuel combustion included)

Emissions from road abrasion are directly linked to driven mileage. Thus, the overall trend of emissions from road abrasion is similar to the trend for total driven mileage.


Overall, recalculations were carried out exclusively due to the regular the revision of the mileage data modelled in TREMOD. (see superordinate chapter).

All emission factors applied remain unchanged.

For specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of the TREMOD model, no specific improvements are planned.

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