1.A.3.b v - Gasoline Evaporation

Last updated on 11 Mar 2020 07:13 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In category 1.A.3.b v - Road Transport: Gasoline evaporation fugitive emissions from evaporation of gasoline from road vehicles are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b v Gasoline evaporation T2 NS, M CS, M L & T: NMVOC

Method

Activity data

Specific data for gasoline evaporation from road vehicles are generated within TREMOD [1].
- The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of gasoline evaported from road vehicles in Germany.

Table 1: Annual amount of gasoline evaporated from road vehicles, in kilotonnes
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
PCs 10,906 9,235 8,553 7,520 7,080 6,695 6,385 6,331 6,176 6,088 5,780 5,732 5,715 5,502 5,482 5,501 5,145
LDVs 202 193 169 112 95 85 72 65 60 55 50 47 47 49 50 52 54
Mopeds 52 34 38 44 45 49 52 60 57 56 54 56 57 59 59 59 57
Motorcycles 108 99 204 219 203 200 186 169 155 143 131 124 130 136 138 140 137
Ʃ 1.A.3.b v 11,283 9,561 8,964 7,895 7,424 7,030 6,695 6,625 6,447 6,342 6,015 5,959 5,948 5,747 5,730 5,752 5,392

source: TREMOD 6.02 [1]

(Implied) Emission factors

Tier3 emission factors representing the effect of mitigation technologies are derived from TREMOD (Knörr et al., 2019a ) [1].

Table 2: Overview of implied emission factors per vehcile type, in kg/t
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
PCs 18.8 12.4 5.63 3.15 2.98 2.95 2.68 2.58 2.56 2.63 2.66 2.73 2.80 2.78 2.84 2.91 3.03
LDVs 24.9 20.0 13.9 10.3 9.64 9.27 7.86 7.47 7.13 7.11 6.65 6.69 6.49 6.01 5.92 5.74 5.29
Mopeds 37.4 23.7 21.1 17.6 17.1 16.4 15.9 15.1 15.0 14.9 14.8 14.6 14.4 13.8 13.9 14.0 14.3
Motorcycles 23.3 24.8 16.2 15.8 16.5 16.5 16.1 17.4 18.8 20.5 21.8 23.6 23.3 21.8 22.2 22.4 22.4

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b v - Gasoline evaporation is key category for emissions of NMVOC regarding the emissions' level and declining trend.

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds - NMVOC

(fugitive emissions only; no NMVOC emissions from fuel combustion included)

Since its maximum level of over 11,000 kilotonnes in 1990, the amount of evaporated gasoline is decreasing - and so are the related NMVOC emissions. The amounts of evaporated gasoline are connected directly with those of gasoline consumed. Here, the decrease becomes sharper from 2000 onwards following a growing switch from gasoline to diesel oil especially in passenger cars. Here, the annual amounts of NMVOC emissions from evaporation not only depend directly on the amount of evaporated gasoline but also on the number of vehicles equipped with mitigation technologies. Thus, the decrease is sharpest straight after 1990 and since then slowing down.

NOTE: Due to defectively revised emission factors, the emission estimates provided in the NFR tables are incorrect until 1993. Here, the EFs for 1990 to 1993 have not been adapted to the revised values for all years as of 1994. As it is not possible to provide an artificially corretected chart for the emission estimates, the chart from submission 2014 is included to at least display the correct trend in emissions. - However, the described erronous EFs will be corrected with the next TREMOD routine revision and the NEC and CLRTAP submissions 2018.

Recalculations

Due to a broad revision of the TREMOD model carried out to keep in line with the new HBEFA 4.1, activity data and emission factors have been checked and revised for all years.

Table 3: Revised annual amounts of evaporated gasoline, in kilotonnes
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Submission 2020 11,267 9,561 8,964 7,895 7,424 7,030 6,695 6,625 6,447 6,342 6,015 5,959 5,948 5,747 5,730 5,752
Submission 2019 11,283 9,951 9,480 8,419 7,944 7,573 7,340 7,307 7,196 7,134 6,817 6,909 6,973 6,888 6,670 6,634
absolute change -16.1 -389 -516 -524 -520 -543 -645 -682 -748 -792 -803 -949 -1,025 -1,141 -940 -881
relative change -0.14% -3.91% -5.45% -6.23% -6.55% -7.17% -8.79% -9.34% -10.4% -11.1% -11.8% -13.7% -14.7% -16.6% -14.1% -13.3%

In addition, the NMVOC emission factors applied were revised for all years. However, this revision can only be displayed for the implied emission factors:

Table 4: Revised implied emission factors for NMVOC emissions from evaporated gasoline, in kg/t
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Passenger Cars
Submission 2020 19 12 5.6 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9
Submission 2019 9.2 8.6 3.1 1.2 2.1 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5
absolute change 9.6 3.8 2.6 2.0 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
relative change 105% 45% 83% 170% 44% 54% 71% 75% 82% 87% 90% 97% 100% 102% 95% 94%
Light-duty vehicles
Submission 2020 24.9 20.0 13.9 10.3 9.64 9.27 7.86 7.47 7.13 7.11 6.65 6.69 6.49 6.01 5.92 5.74
Submission 2019 14.5 18.4 10.3 6.56 12.6 11.4 8.82 7.73 6.80 6.13 5.65 5.36 5.21 4.94 5.12 5.07
absolute change 10.5 1.66 3.61 3.77 -2.93 -2.09 -0.96 -0.26 0.34 0.98 1.00 1.33 1.28 1.08 0.80 0.67
relative change 72.3% 9.1% 35.1% 57.4% -23.3% -18.4% -10.9% -3.4% 5.0% 16.0% 17.7% 24.7% 24.6% 21.8% 15.6% 13.2%
Mopeds
Submission 2020 37.4 23.7 21.1 17.6 17.1 16.4 15.9 15.1 15.0 14.9 14.8 14.6 14.4 13.8 13.9 14.0
Submission 2019 3.27 3.16 3.32 3.30 6.48 6.71 6.71 6.95 6.89 6.71 6.64 6.70 6.64 6.56 6.55 6.49
absolute change 34.1 20.5 17.8 14.3 10.6 9.64 9.17 8.10 8.13 8.23 8.18 7.87 7.78 7.27 7.35 7.52
relative change 1043% 650% 537% 434% 164% 144% 137% 117% 118% 123% 123% 117% 117% 111% 112% 116%
Motorcycles
Submission 2020 23.3 24.8 16.2 15.8 16.5 16.5 16.1 17.4 18.8 20.5 21.8 23.6 23.3 21.8 22.2 22.4
Submission 2019 8.76 23.1 11.3 6.37 11.62 16.05 13.49 12.09 10.91 10.16 9.24 8.41 7.81 7.55 7.18 6.86
absolute change 14.6 1.66 4.94 9.47 4.90 0.49 2.60 5.36 7.84 10.3 12.6 15.2 15.5 14.3 15.0 15.6
relative change 166% 7.16% 44% 149% 42% 3.07% 19.3% 44.4% 71.8% 101% 136% 181% 198% 189% 209% 227%

As a result, NMVOC emissions from gasoline evaporation were re-estimated as follows:

Table 6: Re-estimated NMVOC emissions, in kilotonnes
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Submission 2020 215 122 54.6 29.1 26.1 24.7 21.5 20.7 20.0 20.1 19.3 19.7 20.1 19.4 19.7 20.3
Submission 2019 104 87.2 31.2 11.8 20.3 17.9 14.5 13.7 13.0 12.9 12.3 12.4 12.6 12.2 12.4 12.6
absolute change 110 34.9 23.4 17.3 5.83 6.82 6.95 6.95 7.00 7.29 7.07 7.32 7.54 7.19 7.35 7.61
relative change 106% 40.0% 75.2% 146% 28.7% 38.2% 47.8% 50.6% 53.9% 56.7% 57.6% 59.1% 59.9% 59.0% 59.3% 60.2%

For specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2017, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

As mentioned above, the correction of erroneous emission factors will be included in the TREMOD routine revision for submission 2019.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2019a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2019.
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