1.A.3.b v - Gasoline Evaporation

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 08:40 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In category 1.A.3.b v - Road Transport: Gasoline evaporation fugitive emissions from evaporation of gasoline from road vehicles are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
1.A.3.b v Gasoline evaporation T2 NS, M CS, M L & T: NMVOC

Method

Activity data

Specific data for gasoline evaporation from road vehicles are generated within TREMOD (ifeu, 2017a) [1].
- The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of gasoline evaported from road vehicles in Germany.

Table 1: Annual amount of gasoline evaporated from road vehicles, in kilotonnes
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
PCs 10,923 9,694 9,171 8,108 7,630 7,324 7,094 7,059 6,949 6,881 6,566 6,647 6,703 6,432 6,216
LDVs 169 139 144 103 95 88 74 68 62 59 55 53 52 51 48
Mopeds 113 79 72 73 77 77 79 81 78 81 79 79 80 78 79
Motorcycles 78 39 93 135 141 83 92 100 106 113 118 130 139 128 129
TOTAL 11,283 9,951 9,480 8,419 7,944 7,573 7,340 7,307 7,196 7,134 6,817 6,909 6,973 6,688 6,472

source: TREMOD 5.72 [1]

(Implied) Emission factors

Tier3 emission factors representing the effect of mitigation technologies are derived from TREMOD [1].

Table 2: Emission factors used for 2016 emissions estimates, in kg/t
Passenger cars Light duty vehicles Mopeds Motorcycles
conventional with mitigation conventional with mitigation conventional conventional with mitigation
46.5 0.83 32.5 0.50 6.76 24.7 15.1
Table 3: Overview of implied emission factors per vehcile type, in kg/t
1990 1993 1994 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
PCs 0.0092 0.0065 0.0098 0.0086 0.0031 0.0012 0.0021 0.0019 0.0016 0.0015 0.0014 0.0014 0.0014 0.0014 0.0014 0.0014 0.0015
LDVs 0.0145 0.0120 0.0202 0.0184 0.0103 0.0066 0.0126 0.0114 0.0088 0.0077 0.0068 0.0061 0.0057 0.0054 0.0052 0.0051 0.0053
Mopeds 0.0033 0.0029 0.0032 0.0032 0.0033 0.0033 0.0065 0.0067 0.0067 0.0069 0.0069 0.0067 0.0066 0.0067 0.0066 0.0068 0.0067
Motorcycles 0.0088 0.0156 0.0247 0.0231 0.0135 0.0106 0.0197 0.0278 0.0243 0.0227 0.0212 0.0204 0.0193 0.0182 0.0175 0.0181 0.0179

NOTE: IEFs for 1993 and 1994 as well as 2005 and 2006 are underlined to show the erronous development. A correction will be scheduled for the next annual submission.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b v - Gasoline evaporation is key category for emissions of NMVOC regarding the emissions' level and declining trend.

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds - NMVOC

(fugitive emissions only; no NMVOC emissions from fuel combustion included)

Since its maximum level of over 11 kilotonnes in 1990, the amount of evaporated gasoline is decreasing - and so are the related NMVOC emissions. The amounts of evaporated gasoline are connected directly with those of gasoline consumed. Here, the decrease becomes sharper from 2000 onwards following a growing switch from gasoline to diesel oil especially in passenger cars. Here, the annual amounts of NMVOC emissions from evaporation not only depend directly on the amount of evaporated gasoline but also on the number of vehicles equipped with mitigation technologies. Thus, the decrease is sharpest straight after 1990 and since then slowing down.

NOTE: Due to defectively revised emission factors, the emission estimates provided in the NFR tables are incorrect until 1993. Here, the EFs for 1990 to 1993 have not been adapted to the revised values for all years as of 1994. As it is not possible to provide an artificially corretected chart for the emission estimates, the chart from submission 2014 is included to at least display the correct trend in emissions. - However, the described erronous EFs will be corrected with the next TREMOD routine revision and the NEC and CLRTAP submissions 2018.

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out due to a TREMOD routine revision and as a follow-up of the ongoing review process impelemented under the LRTAP Convention.

Activity data was revised for all years as of 2006.

Table 4: Revised annual amounts of evaporated gasoline, in kilotonnes
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
TOTAL
Submission 2018 8,419 7,944 7,573 7,340 7,307 7,196 7,134 6,817 6,909 6,973 6,688
Submission 2017 8,419 7,952 7,580 7,348 7,315 7,204 7,142 6,825 6,916 6,981 6,735
absolute change 0 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -47
relative change 0.00% -0.10% -0.10% -0.11% -0.11% -0.11% -0.11% -0.11% -0.11% -0.11% -0.69%
Passenger Cars
Submission 2018 8,108 7,630 7,324 7,094 7,059 6,949 6,881 6,566 6,647 6,703 6,432
Submission 2017 8,108 7,638 7,332 7,102 7,067 6,957 6,889 6,573 6,654 6,710 6,477
absolute change 0 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -8 -7 -45
relative change 0.00% -0.11% -0.11% -0.11% -0.12% -0.12% -0.12% -0.12% -0.11% -0.11% -0.69%
Light Duty Vehicles
Submission 2018 103 95 88 74 68 62 59 55 53 52 51
Submission 2017 103 95 88 74 68 62 59 55 53 51 51
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
relative change 0.00% 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15% -0.43%
Mopeds
Submission 2018 73 77 77 79 81 78 81 79 79 80 78
Submission 2017 73 77 77 79 81 78 81 79 79 81 78
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1
relative change 0.00% 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% -0.15% -0.25% -0.36% -1.02%
Motorcycles
Submission 2018 135 141 83 92 100 106 113 118 130 139 128
Submission 2017 135 141 83 92 99 106 113 118 130 139 128
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1
relative change 0.00% 0.13% 0.13% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.14% 0.09% 0.05% 0.04% -0.56%

In addition, tier3 NMVOC emission factors were revised for recent years.

As a result, NMVOC emissions from gasoline evaporation were re-estimated as follows:

Table 5: Re-estimated NMVOC emissions, in kilotonnes
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
TOTAL
Submission 2018 11.80 20.32 17.85 14.54 13.74 12.99 12.85 12.28 12.38 12.59 12.19
Submission 2017 11.80 10.22 8.99 7.35 6.98 6.62 6.58 6.32 6.41 6.54 6.39
absolute change 0.00 10.11 8.86 7.18 6.76 6.36 6.27 5.95 5.97 6.04 5.80
relative change 0.00% 98.89% 98.58% 97.64% 96.83% 96.05% 95.26% 94.11% 93.23% 92.36% 90.79%
Passenger Cars
Submission 2018 9.45 15.84 14.02 11.11 10.39 9.77 9.64 9.17 9.21 9.36 9.09
Submission 2017 9.45 7.91 7.00 5.55 5.19 4.88 4.81 4.58 4.60 4.67 4.57
absolute change 0.00 7.93 7.02 5.56 5.20 4.89 4.83 4.59 4.61 4.68 4.52
relative change 0.00% 100.26% 100.26% 100.27% 100.28% 100.28% 100.28% 100.26% 100.30% 100.29% 99.11%
Light Duty Vehicles
Submission 2018 0.67 1.20 1.00 0.66 0.52 0.42 0.36 0.31 0.28 0.27 0.26
Submission 2017 0.67 0.60 0.50 0.33 0.26 0.21 0.18 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.13
absolute change 0.00 0.60 0.50 0.33 0.26 0.21 0.18 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.13
relative change 0.00% 100.26% 100.26% 100.27% 100.28% 100.28% 100.28% 100.31% 100.30% 100.30% 99.13%
Mopeds
Submission 2018 0.24 0.50 0.52 0.53 0.56 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.53 0.53 0.53
Submission 2017 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27
absolute change 0.00 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.26
relative change 0.00% 100.26% 100.26% 100.27% 100.28% 100.28% 100.28% 94.82% 94.94% 95.19% 97.96%
Motorcycles
Submission 2018 1.43 2.78 2.31 2.24 2.26 2.25 2.31 2.28 2.36 2.43 2.31
Submission 2017 1.43 1.46 1.23 1.21 1.25 1.27 1.32 1.33 1.40 1.46 1.43
absolute change 0.00 1.32 1.08 1.02 1.01 0.99 0.99 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.89
relative change 0.00% 90.65% 88.00% 84.32% 80.99% 78.13% 75.17% 72.02% 68.92% 65.79% 62.09%

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

As mentioned above, the correction of erroneous emission factors will be included in the TREMOD routine revision for submission 2019.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2017a: Knörr, W. et al.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.71, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2017.
2. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License