1.A.3.b - Road Transport

Last updated on 29 Aug 2019 09:29 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In category 1.A.3.b - Road Transport emissions from fuel combustion activities as well as abrasive and fugitive emissions are reported within the following categories:

NFR-Code Name of Category
1.A.3.b Road Transport
consisting of / including sub-categories
Emissions from Fuel Combustion
1.A.3.b i Passenger Cars
1.A.3.b ii Light Duty Vehicles
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles
1.A.3.b iv Mopeds & Motorcycles
Fugitive Emissions from Road Vehicles
1.A.3.b v Gasoline Evaporation
Emissions from Tyre and Brake Wear & Road Abrasion
1.A.3.b vi Automobile Tyre and Brake Wear
1.A.3.b vii Automobile Road Abrasion

Abbreviations used below as well as in the following chapters on road transport for the different types of vehicles:

  • PCs - Passenger Cars
  • LDVs - Light Duty Vehicles
  • HDVs - Heavy Duty Vehicles (if not reported separatly: including buses)
  • MCs - Motorcycles (if not reported separatly: including mopeds)

Emissions from motorised road traffic in Germany are reported under this category. It includes traffic on public roads within Germany, except for agricultural and forestry transports and military transports. Calculations are made for the vehicle categories of passenger cars, motorcycles, light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses. For calculation purposes, the vehicle categories are broken down into so-called vehicle layers with the same emissions behaviour. To this end, vehicle categories are also broken down by type of fuel used, vehicle size (trucks and buses by weight class; automobiles and motorcycles by engine displacement) and pollution control equipment used, as defined by EU directives for emissions control ("EURO norms"), and by regional traffic distribution (outside of cities, in cities and autobahn).

Since 1990, emissions of NOx, CO, NMVOC and SO2 from road transports have decreased sharply, due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from continual tightening of emissions laws, and due to improved fuel quality.

For buses and heavy duty vehicles (over 3.5 t total permissible vehicle weight), maximum permissible levels of hydrocarbon (HC, incl. NMVOC) emissions were lowered especially sharply (-40%) via the introduction of the EURO3 standard in 2000. Since EURO3 vehicles were very quick to reach the market as of 2000, the emission factor for hydrocarbon emissions from diesel fuel - and the relevant emissions themselves – decreased considerably after 2000.

Method

Emissions are calculated with the aid of the TREMOD model ("Transport Emission Estimation Model" v5.81) from (Knörr, W. et al. (2018a)) [1]. That model adopts a "bottom-up" (tier3) approach whereby mileage of the individual vehicle layers is multiplied by region-specific emission factors. For passenger cars and light duty vehicles, a “cold start surplus” is also added. The total consumption calculated on the basis of fuel type is compared with the consumption according to the Energy Balance. The emissions are then corrected with the aid of factors obtained from this comparison process. For petrol-powered vehicles, the evaporation emissions of VOC are calculated in keeping with the pollution-control technology used. From the emissions and fuel consumption for the various vehicle layers, aggregated, fuelbased emission factors (kg of emissions per TJ of fuel consumption) are derived, and then the emission factors are forwarded to the CSE via a relevant interface. In keeping with the CORINAIR report structure, these factors are differentiated only by type of fuel, type of road (autobahn, rural road, city road) and, within the vehicle categories, by "without/with emissions-control equipment". The following emissions-control categories are differentiated:

Table 1: Differentiation of emissions-control categories in road transports
Emissions-control system without with
PCs / LDVs with gasoline engines without catalytic converter with catalytic converter
PCs / LDVs with diesel engines, buses, HDVs, MCs before Euro1 standard after Euro1 standard

For calculation with TREMOD, extensive basic data from generally accessible statistics and special surveys were used, co-ordinated, and supplemented. An overview of the principal sources and key assumptions is given below. Detailed descriptions of the databases, including information on the sources used, and the calculation methods used in TREMOD, are provided in the aforementioned IFEU report.

Activity Data

The basis for CSE data collection for the road-transport sector consists of fuel consumption data provided by the Working Group on Energy Balances (AGEB). For each year, the sum of the activity rates for the various individual structural elements must correspond to the Energy Balance data, in terajoule. The relevant basic Energy Balance data is shown in the table below.

Table 2: Fuel consumption in German road transport, in terajoule
Diesel oil Gasoline Biodiesel Bioethanol Biogas LPG CNG Petroleum
1990 735,920 1,330,479 0 0 0 138 0 0
1991 785,174 1,332,285 0 0 0 137 0 0
1992 853,502 1,344,129 0 0 0 229 0 0
1993 907,787 1,350,617 0 0 0 184 0 473
1994 932,060 1,276,637 0 0 0 184 0 559
1995 964,013 1,299,982 1,504 0 0 138 0 610
1996 964,580 1,299,879 2,046 0 0 115 0 638
1997 979,586 1,297,487 3,652 0 0 106 0 357
1998 1,022,794 1,300,463 4,081 0 0 106 0 637
1999 1,097,036 1,300,602 5,370 0 0 100 0 637
2000 1,108,105 1,237,055 12,276 0 0 94 0 414
2001 1,097,416 1,199,318 16,740 0 0 98 0 471
2002 1,105,842 1,166,381 20,460 0 0 607 0 472
2003 1,078,352 1,108,989 29,948 0 0 694 0 0
2004 1,110,931 1,072,720 38,806 1,144 0 1,887 0 0
2005 1,078,620 992,377 71,824 6,817 0 2,357 3,127 0
2006 1,082,042 930,834 130,165 13,418 0 4,605 4,446 0
2007 1,073,987 892,982 143,235 12,061 0 8,942 5,845 0
2008 1,102,623 854,002 109,393 16,328 0 15,652 7,144 0
2009 1,114,939 829,227 89,375 23,691 0 23,842 8,443 0
2010 1,168,063 791,416 88,886 30,577 0 21,823 8,768 0
2011 1,197,252 787,803 82,810 32,292 0 23,613 8,771 0
2012 1,223,718 742,000 85,683 32,882 1,267 23,532 8,869 0
2013 1,283,637 741,150 75,504 31,770 1,462 23,077 7,389 0
2014 1,296,828 744,661 79,014 32,383 1,883 21,464 7,472 0
2015 1,348,789 708,672 73,116 30,736 1,249 18,963 7,407 0
2016 1,393,481 709,179 73,337 30,804 1,375 16,799 5,848 0
2017 1,422,567 711,674 75,451 30,294 1,235 13,570 5,198 0

Source: Evaluation tables of the Energy Balances, "Mineralölzahlen" ("Petroleum Data") of the Association of the German Petroleum Industry (MWV) and "Amtliche Mineralöldaten" ("Official Petroleum Data", BAFA).

For more information on the derivation of activity data and the emission factors applied, please refer to the sub-ordinate chapters as well as appendix 2.2.

Emission trends in road transport

Whereas emission trends for nitrogen oxides (NOx), NMVOC, and carbon monoxide (CO) depend on the coming into force of the diferent EURO regulations, ongoing technical developments (engines, catalysts etc.) the trend chart for sulphur dioxide (SO2) shows a totally different charcteristics: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend, influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. - The ammonia emissions chart varies significantly. Here, the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase of ammonia emissions whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars result in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Emissions of particulate matter in road transport result from (i) fuel combustion and (ii) tyre and brake wear and road abrasion.
With implemetation of particle filter systems and the ongoing increase of annual mileage, today

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (Knörr et al. (2009)) [2].

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements, Recalculations and FAQs:

Please see sub-category chapters.


Bibliography
1. Knörr et al. (2018a): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F.: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2035, sowie TREMOD 5.81, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg [u.a.]: Ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2018.
2. Knörr et al. (2009): Knörr, W., Heldstab, J., & Kasser, F.: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland; final report; URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/461/publikationen/3937.pdf, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich, 2009.
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