1.A.2.g vii - Offroad Construction Vehicles

Last updated on 10 May 2019 06:43 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under NFR 1.A.2.g vii - Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction, emissions from Off-Road Construction Vehicles and Construction Machinery are reported in the German inventory.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction
1.A.2.g vii Offroad Construction Vehicles T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M L & T: CO, PM2.5, PM10, | L: BC

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2018) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2018) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4. ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (Knörr et al. (2018b)) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Percental annual contribution of 1.A.2.g vii to fuel-specific over-all delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel Fuels 42% 45% 44% 40% 41% 40% 41% 41% 39% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40%
Gasoline Fuels 31% 60% 55% 58% 58% 53% 62% 66% 64% 64% 66% 66% 66% 66% 68% 67%
Table 3: Annual fuel consumption in construction vehicles and mobile machinery, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Diesel Oil 47,301 44,401 42,286 32,895 34,084 33,035 34,467 36,363 34,891 36,026 35,607 37,202 38,972 40,334 41,814 42,649
Gasoline 1,420 4,453 4,079 4,258 4,292 3,871 4,510 2,939 2,779 2,516 784 775 825 3,288 3,366 3,878
Biodiesel 0 0 0 719 993 1,476 1,704 2,504 2,263 2,361 2,325 2,154 2,363 2,180 2,196 2,262
Bioethanol 0 0 0 29 62 52 86 84 107 103 35 33 36 143 146 168
Ʃ 1.A.2.g vii 48,721 48,854 46,364 37,903 39,431 38,434 40,767 41,890 40,040 41,007 38,752 40,164 42,197 45,946 47,523 48,958

NOTE: The remarkable increase in gasoline consumption after 2014 relates to the strongly increased inland deliveries reported in NEB line 67 that will be checked again by the compiler of the National Energy Balance for the next annual submission.

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within TREMOD MM [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

Table 4: Annual country-specific emission factors1, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Gasoline fuels
NH3 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
NMVOC2 678 623 571 563 562 562 562 562 561 561 561 561 561 561 561 561
NMVOC3 77.8 74.8 82.3 100.8 96.3 102.5 101.1 103.3 105.8 105.8 105.8 105.8 105.8 105.8 105.8 105.8
NOx 54.03 68.31 75.89 76.85 76.88 76.91 76.92 76.93 76.94 76.95 76.96 76.96 76.97 76.97 76.97 76.97
SOx 10.10 8.27 3.22 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
BC5 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24
PM4 6.03 5.43 4.83 4.72 4.72 4.72 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71
TSP6 2.35 0.82
CO 38,459 35,290 32,423 32,108 32,488 32,973 33,520 34,097 34,681 35,250 35,791 36,289 36,661 36,840 36,918 36,973
Pb 1.47 0.52
Diesel fuels
NH3 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
NMVOC2 185.2 156.8 134.0 90.2 82.6 75.6 69.2 63.6 59.3 55.2 51.6 47.9 44.1 40.8 37.6 34.7
NOx 1,047 1,012 970 757 708 659 610 563 523 484 449 417 386 357 325 292
SOx 79.62 60.52 13.97 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
BC5 78.46 64.05 51.12 36.43 34.09 32.02 30.20 28.64 27.64 26.46 25.29 23.84 22.13 20.47 18.80 17.19
PM4 149.0 121.2 94.5 60.3 54.9 50.0 45.6 41.8 39.1 36.4 34.1 31.7 29.2 26.9 24.6 22.5
CO 585 579 552 421 397 375 355 337 324 313 304 296 289 283 278 272

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 from fuel combustion
3 from gasoline evaporation
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 estimated via a f-BCs as provided in [3], Chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road, note to Table 3-1: Tier 1 emission factors for off-road machinery
6 from leaded gasoline (until 1997)

NOTE: With respect to the emission factors applied for particulate matter, given the circumstances during test-bench measurements, condensables are most likely included at least partly.1

For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additional emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].

For information on the emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions, please refer to Appendix 2.3 - Heavy Metal (HM) exhaust emissions from mobile sources and Appendix 2.4 - Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exhaust emissions from mobile sources.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.2.g vii is key source for emissions of PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Here, as NMVOC emissions are dominated by gasoline fuels, the trend shows the same strong decline after 2011 as the underlying activity data (see above and NFR 1.A.4 - mobile, Table 1.)
The remarkable increase after 2014 relates to the strongly increased gasoline inland deliveries reported in NEB line 67. (see table 3 above). This noticeable increase will be checked by the compiler of the National Energy Balance.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Recalculations

Activity data

For all years as of 2010, the revised fuel shares resulted in respectively revised activity data. For 2016, activity data was additionally affected by changes in the underlying NEB data.

Table 5: Revised annual fuel shares 2010-2016
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
diesel fuels
Submission 2019 0.394 0.397 0.400 0.401 0.403 0.398 0.397
Submission 2018 0.394 0.397 0.400 0.401 0.403 0.398 0.397
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
relative change 0.0000% 0.0016% 0.0016% 0.0016% 0.0016% 0.0016% 0.0016%
gasoline fuels
Submission 2019 0.640 0.638 0.663 0.665 0.662 0.659 0.676
Submission 2018 0.640 0.638 0.663 0.665 0.662 0.659 0.676
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
relative change 0.0000% 0.0011% 0.0010% 0.0010% 0.0010% 0.0010% 0.0009%

source: own estimates based on Knörr et al. (2018b) [3]

Table 6: Resulting revision of activity data 2010-2016, in terajoules
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
diesel fuels
Submission 2019 37,154 38,387 37,932 39,357 41,335 42,515 44,010
Submission 2018 37,167 38,398 37,941 39,366 41,347 42,514 42,842
absolute change -14 -11 -9 -9 -12 1 1,169
relative change -0,04% -0,03% -0,02% -0,02% -0,03% 0,00% 2,73%
gasoline fuels
Submission 2019 2,886 2,620 819 808 861 3,431 3,512
Submission 2018 2,886 2,620 819 808 861 3,431 3,811
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 -298
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -7.83%
over-all fuel consumption
Submission 2019 40,040 41,007 38,752 40,164 42,197 45,946 47,523
Submission 2018 40,053 41,017 38,760 40,173 42,209 45,945 46,652
absolute change -14 -11 -9 -9 -12 1 870
relative change -0.03% -0.03% -0.02% -0.02% -0.03% 0.00% 1.87%

source: own estimates based on [1] and [3]

Emission Factors

The following country-specific annual EF applied for diesel fuels were revised for 2015 and 2016:

Table 7: Revised country-specific emission factors for diesel fuels, in kg/TJ
NMVOC PM BC CO
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
Submission 2019 40.76 37.61 26.9 24.6 20.5 18.8 283 278
Submission 2018 40.76 37.61 26.9 24.6 20.5 18.8 283 278
absolute change -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.008 -0.001 -0.006 -0.05 -0.24
relative change -0.002% -0.007% -0.007% -0.032% -0.006% -0.031% -0.02% -0.09%

source: Knörr et al. (2018b): TREMOD MM [3]

Furthermore, the tier1 EF for dioxin exhaust emissions from biodiesel has been revised to take into account the this fuel's specific NCV:

Table 8: Revised tier1 emission factors for PCDD/F exhaust emissions from biodiesel
Submission 2019 1.87
Submission 2018 1.62
absolute change 0.25
relative change 15.4%

For specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2016, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (Knörr et al. (2009)) [6].

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] and [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained in the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to diesel and biodiesel.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2018: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2016.html, Köln & Berlin, 2018.
2. BAFA, 2018: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, Eschborn, 2018.
3. Knörr et al. (2018b): Knörr, W., Heidt, C., Gores, S., & Bergk, F. (2018b): ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery (TREMOD MM) 2018, Heidelberg, 2018.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. Knörr et al. (2009): Knörr, W., Heldstab, J., & Kasser, F.: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland; final report; URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/461/publikationen/3937.pdf, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich, 2009.
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