1.A.2.g vii - Offroad Construction Vehicles

Last updated on 14 Mar 2018 09:13 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under NFR 1.A.2.g vii - Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction, emissions from Off-Road Construction Vehicles and Construction Machinery are reported in the German inventory.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category 1
Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction
1.A.2.g vii Offroad Construction Vehicles T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M L & T: PM2.5, PM10, BC | L: CO

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2017) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2017) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4. ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2017b) (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Percental annual contribution of 1.A.2.g vii to fuel-specific over-all delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel Fuels 42% 45% 44% 40% 41% 40% 41% 41% 39% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40%
Gasoline Fuels 31% 60% 55% 58% 58% 53% 62% 66% 64% 64% 66% 66% 66% 66% 68%
Table 3: Annual fuel consumption in construction vehicles and mobile machinery, in terajoules
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Diesel Oil 47,301 44,401 42,286 32,895 34,084 33,035 34,467 36,363 34,891 36,025 35,607 37,201 38,972 40,334 40,706
Gasoline 1,420 4,453 4,079 4,258 4,292 3,871 4,510 2,939 2,779 2,516 784 775 825 3,288 3,652
Biodiesel 0 0 0 719 993 1,476 1,704 2,504 2,277 2,373 2,334 2,164 2,375 2,180 2,136
Bioethanol 0 0 0 29 62 52 86 84 107 103 35 33 36 143 159
NFR TOTAL 48,721 48,854 46,364 37,903 39,431 38,434 40,767 41,890 40,053 41,017 38,760 40,173 42,209 45,945 46,652

NOTE: The remarkable increase in gasoline consumption after 2014 relates to the strongly increased inland deliveries reported in NEB line 67 that will be checked again by the compiler of the National Energy Balance for the next annual submission.

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

Table 4: Annual country-specific emission factors from TREMOD MM 1, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Gasoline fuels
NH3 0.089 0.092 0.093 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.094
NMVOC 2 678 623 571 563 562 562 562 562 561 561 561 561 561 561 561
NMVOC 3 78 75 82 101 96 103 101 103 106 106 106 106 106 106 106
NOx 54 68 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77
SOx 10 8 3 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
PM 4 6.03 5.43 4.83 4.72 4.72 4.72 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.71
BC 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24
TSP 5 2.35 0.82
CO 38,459 35,290 32,423 32,108 32,488 32,973 33,520 34,097 34,681 35,250 35,791 36,289 36,661 36,840 36,918
Pb 6 1,471 516
Diesel fuels
NH3 0.161 0.164 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167
NMVOC 2 185 157 134 90 83 76 69 64 59 55 52 48 44 41 38
NOx 1,047 1,012 970 757 708 659 610 563 523 484 449 417 386 357 325
SOx 80 61 14 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
PM 4 149 121 94 60 55 50 46 42 39 36 34 32 29 27 25
BC 78 64 51 36 34 32 30 29 28 26 25 24 22 20 19
CO 585 579 552 421 397 375 355 337 324 313 304 296 289 283 278

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 from fuel combustion
3 from gasoline evaporation
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 TSP from leaded gasoline (until 1997)
6 Pb from leaded gasoline (until 1997)

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from the July 2017 version of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4] for road vehicles (chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv Passenger cars, light commercial trucks, heavy-duty vehicles including buses and motor cycles; page: 92 ff). Regarding heavy metals, separate tier1 default EFs are provided there in tables 3.77 and 3.78 for emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear as well as lubricant co-incineration. Heavy-metal emissions from lubricants (as far as not used in 2-stroke mix) are reported under NFR 2.G as emissions from product use.
(Note: Until submission 2017, the EMEP/EEA default EFs provided for NRMM were used in the German inventory. As these EFs do not differentiate between fuel combustion and lubricant co-incineration, the inventory compiler decided to apply the more specific EFs from road transport to NRMM in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii and c ii and 1.A.5.b, too.)

Table 5: Tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Diesel oil 0.012 0.0012 0.123 0.0023 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419 498 521 275 493 1.788 1.62
Biodiesel 1 0.013 0.0013 0.142 0.0027 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483 575 601 317 569 2.062 1.62
Gasoline fuels 0.037 0.0046 0.20 0.0068 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758 919 919 90 204 2.131 2.76

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additional emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [5] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.2.g vii is key source for emissions of PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Here, as NMVOC emissions are dominated by gasoline fuels, the trend shows the same strong decline after 2011 as the underlying activity data (see above and NFR 1.A.4 - mobile, Table 1.)
The remarkable increase after 2014 relates to the strongly increased gasoline inland deliveries reported in NEB line 67. (see table 3 above). This noticeable increase will be checked by the compiler of the National Energy Balance.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Recalculations

Activity data

Table 6: Revised annual fuel shares 1997-2015
1997 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel fuels
Submission 2018 0.438 0.445 0.402 0.412 0.398 0.407 0.406 0.394 0.397 0.400 0.401 0.403 0.398
Submission 2017 0.438 0.444 0.400 0.410 0.396 0.405 0.404 0.396 0.414 0.401 0.401 0.404 0.404
absolute change 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 -0.002 -0.017 -0.001 0.001 -0.001 -0.006
relative change 0.07% 0.20% 0.42% 0.45% 0.50% 0.53% 0.58% -0.39% -4.20% -0.19% 0.15% -0.35% -1.52%
Gasoline fuels
Submission 2018 0.603 0.551 0.584 0.584 0.526 0.620 0.661 0.640 0.638 0.663 0.665 0.662 0.659
Submission 2017 0.603 0.551 0.584 0.584 0.526 0.620 0.661 0.640 0.657 0.665 0.667 0.668 0.672
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.018 -0.002 -0.002 -0.006 -0.012
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -2.77% -0.29% -0.28% -0.85% -1.82%

For all years as of 1997, the revised fuel shares resulted in respectively revised activity data. For 2015, activity data was additionally affected by changes in the underlying NEB data.

Table 7: Resulting revision of activity data 1997-2015, in terajoules
1997 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel fuels
Submission 2017 42,277 42,286 33,615 35,077 34,511 36,170 38,867 37,167 38,398 37,941 39,366 41,347 42,514
Submission 2017 42,248 42,199 33,470 34,915 34,334 35,976 38,641 37,309 40,079 38,012 39,303 41,487 43,776
absolute change 29 86 145 162 176 194 226 -141 -1,681 -71 63 -140 -1,262
relative change 0.07% 0.20% 0.43% 0.46% 0.51% 0.54% 0.58% -0.38% -4.19% -0.19% 0.16% -0.34% -2.88%
Gasoline fuels
Submission 2018 4,467 4,079 4,288 4,354 3,923 4,596 3,022 2,886 2,620 819 808 861 3,431
Submission 2017 4,467 4,079 4,288 4,354 3,923 4,596 3,022 2,886 2,694 822 810 869 846
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -75 -2 -2 -7 2,585
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -2.77% -0.29% -0.28% -0.84% 305.57%
NFR Total
Submission 2018 46,745 46,364 37,903 39,431 38,434 40,767 41,890 40,053 41,017 38,760 40,173 42,209 45,945
Submission 2017 46,715 46,278 37,757 39,270 38,257 40,573 41,664 40,195 42,773 38,833 40,113 42,356 44,622
absolute change 29 86 145 162 176 194 226 -141 -1,756 -73 61 -148 1,323
relative change 0.06% 0.19% 0.38% 0.41% 0.46% 0.48% 0.54% -0.35% -4.10% -0.19% 0.15% -0.35% 2.96%

source: own estimates based on [1] and [3]

Emission Factors

With all other country-specific emission factors from TREMOD MM, the annual EF for NMVOC emissions from evaporated gasoline were revised for 2015:

Table 8: Revised EF(NMVOC) for emissions from evaporated gasoline, in kg/TJ
Submission 2018 5.00
Submission 2017 5.15
absolute change -0.15
relative change -2.99%

Much stronger changes occur to the emission factors for heavy metals which have been replaced with the revised EF provided for NFRs 1.A.3.bi-iv within the EMEP Guidebook 2016 (July 2017 version)!
In the Guidebook, separate EFs for heavy-metal exhaust emissions from fuel combustion and engine wear on the one hand and from co-incinerated lubricants on the other hand are presented.
Although the EMEP Guidebook gives no clear instruction, HM emissions from the unintended co-incineration of lubricants in vehicles and machinery are allocated under NFR 2.G - Other product use.

Table 9: Revised tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal exhaust emissions, in g/TJ
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn
Diesel oil
Submission 2018 0.012 0.001 0.123 0.002 0.198 0.133 0.005 0.002 0.419
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277
absolute change -1.201 -0.232 0.000 0.000 -0.966 -39.439 -1.625 -0.230 -22.858
relative change -99.04% -99.50% 0.00% 0.00% -83.00% -99.66% -99.71% -99% -98%
Biodiesel 1
Submission 2018 0.013 0.001 0.142 0.003 0.228 0.153 0.005 0.003 0.483
Submission 2017 1.213 0.233 0.123 0.002 1.164 39.572 1.629 0.233 23.277
absolute change -1.199 -0.231 0.019 0.000 -0.936 -39.419 -1.624 -0.230 -22.794
relative change -98.89% -99.42% 15.35% 15.35% -80.39% -99.61% -99.67% -98.85% -97.92%
Gasoline fuels
Submission 2018 0.051 2.099 0.200 0.007 0.145 0.103 0.053 0.005 0.758
Submission 2017 0.762 0.230 0.200 0.007 1.148 39.042 1.608 0.230 22.966
absolute change -0.712 1.869 0.000 0.000 -1.004 -38.939 -1.555 -0.225 -22.208
relative change -93.34% 813.96% 0.00% 0.00% -87.40% -99.74% -96.71% -98.00% -96.70%

1 values differ from EFs applied for fossil diesel oil to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel

Futhermore, the tier1 EF for PAH exhaust emissions from biodiesel combustion were re-estimated to take into account the specific NCV of biodiesel which is 15 per cent below the NCV of fossil diesel oil:

Table 10: Re-estimated tier1 PAH emission factors, in mg/TJ
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4
Submission 2018 806 1,343 924 212 3,284
Submission 2017 698 1,164 801 184 2,847
absolute change 107 179 123 28 437
relative change 15% 15% 15% 15% | |> 15%

For specific information on recalculated emssion estimates reported for Base Year and 2015, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [6]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] and [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained in the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to diesel and biodiesel.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2017: Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.), AGEB): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2015.html, Köln & Berlin, 2017.
2. BAFA, 2017: Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, BAFA): Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, Eschborn, 2017.
3. ifeu, 2017b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W.; ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, ifeu): Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2017.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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