3.D - Agricultural Soils

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
3.D Agricultural Soils
consisting of / including source categories
3.D.a.1 Inorganic N-fertilizers (includes also urea application) T2 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) NS,RS D (NH3), D (NOx) NOx (L/T), NH3 (L/T)
3.D.a.2.a Animal manure applied to soils T2, T3 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) M CS (NH3), D (NOx) NH3 (L/T), NOx (L)
3.D.a.2.c Other organic fertilisers applied to soils (including compost) T2 (for NOx, NH3) M CS NH3 (T)
3.D.a.3 Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals T1 (for NH3, NOx) NS,RS D -
3.D.c Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products T1 (for TSP, PM10, PM2.5,) NS, RS D TSP (L), PM10 (L/T)
3.D.e Cultivated crops T2 (NMVOC) NS, RS D -
3.D.f Agriculture other including use of pesticides T1 (HCB) NS D HCB (L/T)

Country specifics

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NH3 and NOx

In 2015 the sector of agricultural soils contributes ca. 454.1 Gg NH3 or 62.7 % to the total agricultural NH3 emissions in Germany (723.9 Gg NH3). The main sources are the application of manure (3.D.a.2.a), contributing 46.5 % or 211.0 Gg and the application of inorganic N-fertilizers (3.D.a.1), contributing 38.3 % or 174,0 of soil-related NH3 emissions. ). Application of manure is for the first time reported under agricultural soils, up to submission 2016 this emissions were reported as a part of the emissions from manure management (3.B).

The application of residues from digested energy crops (3.D.a.2.c) contributes 60.7 Gg or 13.4 % to NH3 emissions from soils. However, these emissions are excluded from emission reporting by adjustment as emissions from the application of digestates of energy crops are not considered in the NEC and Gothenburg commitments (see adjustment-de-c). N excretions on pastures (3.D.a.3) have a share of 1.9 % (~8.4 Gg).

In 2015 agricultural soils make up 98.3 % (125.6 Gg) of the total of NOx emissions in the agricultural sector (127.7 Gg). The NOx emissions from agricultural soils are mostly due to application of inorganic fertilizer (3.D.a.1) (57.2 %) and manure (3.D.a.2.a) (31.2 %). The source “application of residues from digested energy crops” (3.D.a.2.c) contributes 9.1 % to agricultural soil emissions while excretions on pastures (3.D.a.3) are of minor importance (2.5 %). All NOx emissions are excluded from emission reporting by adjustment as they are not considered in the NEC commitments.

NMVOC

In 2015 the sector of agricultural soils contributes ca. 9.8 Gg NMVOC or 4.7 % to the total agricultural NMVOC emissions in Germany. The only source is emissions from cultivated crops (3.D.e). NMVOC emissions from soils are excluded from emission reporting by adjustment as they are not considered in the NEC commitments.

TSP, PM10 & PM2.5

In 2015, agricultural soils contribute 27.4 % (17.5 Gg), 35.0 % (17.5 Gg) and 8.2 % (ca. 0.7 Gg) to the total agricultural TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions (TSP: 63.9 Gg, PM10: 50.0 Gg PM2.5: 8.2 Gg), respectively. The emissions are reported in category 3.D.c (Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products).

3.D.a.1 - Inorganic N-fertilizers

Activity Data

German statistics report the amount of fertilizers sold. Assuming that the change of fertilizers stocked is small compared with the amount of fertilizers sold, the amount of fertilizer sold is taken to be the amount of fertilizer applied.

Table 1: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of inorganic fertilizers

2017_3D_Table_1.PNG

Methodology

NH3 emissions from the application of inorganic fertilizers are calculated using the Tier 2 approach according to EMEP (2013)-3D-12ff [10], distinguishing between various fertilizer types, see Table 2. For details see Rösemann et al. (2017) [1].
For NOx, the Tier 1 approach described in EMEP (2013) [10]-3D-10ff is applied.

Emission factors

The emission factors for NH3 depend on fertilizer type, see EMEP (2013)-3D-14 [10]. Table 2 lists the EMEP emission factors for the fertilizers used in the inventory.

Table 2: NH3-EF for inorganic fertilizers
Inorganic fertilizers, emission factors in kg NH3 per kg fertilizer N
Fertilizer type EF
calcium ammonium nitrate 0.022
nitrogen solutions (UREA AN) 0.125
urea 0.243
ammonium phosphates 0.113
other NK and NPK 0.037
other straight fertilizers 0.037

For NOx, the simpler methodology by EMEP (2013)-3D-10ff [10] was used. The emission factor for NO-N is obtained by multiplying the EMEP emission factor of 0.026 NO per kg fertilizer N (EMEP, 2013-3D, Table 3-1) with the molar weight ratio 14/30. The emission factor for NOx as NO2 is obtained by multiplying the NO emission factor with the molar weight ratio 46/30.

Table 3: Emission factor for NOx emissions from fertilizer application
Emission factor kg NO-N per kg fertilizer N kg NOx per kg fertilizer N
EFfert 0.012 0.040

3.D.a.2.a - Animal manure applied to soils

In this sector Germany reports the NOx emissions from application of manure (including application of anaerobically digested manure). For the first time NH3 emissions from application of manure are also included under [[3.D.a.2.a]] up to submission 2016 this emissions were reported as a part of the emissions from manure management (3.B).

Activity data

The calculation of the amount of N in manure applied is based on the N mass flow approach (see 3.B). It is the total of N excreted by animals in the housing and the N imported with bedding material minus N losses by emissions of N species from housing and storage. Hence, the amount of total N includes the N contained in anaerobically digested manures to be applied to the field.

Table 4: AD for the estimation of NOx emissions from application of manure

2017_3D_Table_4.PNG

Methodology

NH3 emissions from manure application are calculated separately for each animal species in the mass flow approach by multiplying the respective TAN amount with NH3 emission factors for the various manure application techniques. For details see 3.B and Rösemann et al. (2017) [1].
For NOx emissions from manure application the inventory calculates NO emissions that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/30. The Tier 1 approach for the application of inorganic fertilizer as described in EMEP (2013)-3D-10ff [10] is used, as no specific methodology is available for manure application.

Emission factors

Table 5 shows the implied NH3 emission factors defined as the ratio of total NH3-N emission from manure application to the amount of N spread with manure.

Table 5: IEF for NH3–N from application of manure

2017_3D_Table_5.PNG

As for NOx the method for the application of inorganic fertilizer is used, the emission factor for application of inorganic fertilizer (see Table 3) was adopted.

3.D.a.2.c - Other organic fertilizers applied to soils

This sector describes Germany’s NH3 and NOx emissions from application of residues from digested energy crops.

Activity data

The amount of N in residues from digested energy crops is the N content of the energy crops minus N losses by emissions of N species from the storage of the digestion residues (see 3.I).

Table 6: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of residues from digested energy crops

2017_3D_Table_6.PNG

Methodology

The NH3 emissions are calculated the same way as the NH3 emissions from application of animal manure (3.D.a.2.a). The frequency distributions of spreading techniques were taken from the 2011 survey on manure application practices. The amounts of TAN in the residues applied result from the calculations of emissions from the storage of the digested energy crops (3.I). For details see Rösemann et al. (2017) [1].

For NOx the Tier 1 approach for the application of inorganic fertilizer as described in EMEP (2013)-3D-10ff [10] is used. The inventory calculates NO emissions that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/30.

Emission factors

According to the practice used for the application of digested manure (3.D.a.2.a), the NH3 emission factors for untreated cattle slurry were adopted, see Rösemann et al. (2017) [1]. As for the calculation of NOx emissions the method for fertilizer application is applied, the emission factor for fertilizer application (see Table 3) was used. Table 7 shows the implied emission factors for NH3 emissions from application of residues from digested energy crops.

Table 7: IEF for NH3-N

2017_3D_Table_7.PNG

3.D.a.3 - Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals

The calculation of NH3 and NOx emission resulting from animal excreta deposited during grazing is described in the following. For details see Rösemann et al. (2017) [1].

Activity data

Activity data for NH3 emissions during grazing is the amount of TAN excreted on pasture (see 3.B) while for NOx emissions it is the amount of N excreted on pasture. For details see Rösemann et al. (2017) [1]).

Table 8: N excretions on pasture

2017_3D_Table_8.PNG

Methodology

NH3 emissions from grazing are calculated by multiplying the respective animal population (3.B, Table 1) with corresponding N excretions and relative TAN contents (3.B, Table 2) and the fraction of N excreted on pasture (Table 8). The result is multiplied with the animal specific emission factor (Table 9). NO emissions are calculated the same way with the exception that the emission factor is related to N excreted instead of TAN.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for NH3 are taken from EMEP (2013)-3B-27 [10]. They relate to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. The emission factor for NO is taken from EMEP(2007)-B1020-12 [9]. It relates to the amount of total N excreted on pasture. In order to obtain NOx emissions (as NO2) the NO-N emission factor is to be multiplied by 46/14.

Table 9: Emission factors for emissions of NH3 and NO from grazing
Emission factors
Dairy cows 0.10 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Other cattle 0.06 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Horses 0.35 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Sheep, goats 0.09 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
All animals 0.007 kg NO-N per kg N excreted

3.D.c - Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products

In this sector Germany reports TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from crop production according to EMEP (2013)-3D-10 [10].

Activity data

The activity data is the area of arable and horticultural land. This data is provided by official statistics.

Table 10: AD for the estimation of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from soils

2017_3D_Table_10.PNG

Methodology

As the Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP (2013)-3D-13 [10] cannot be used due to lack of input data, the Tier 1 methodology described in EMEP(2013)-3D-10 f [10] is used. The approach only allows for a first estimate of the order of magnitude to be expected for these emissions.

Emission factors

Emission factors given in EMEP (2013)-3D-11 [10] are used. As no TSP emission factor is available, it is assumed to equal the emission factor of PM10.

Table 11: Emission factors for PM emissions from agricultural soils
Emission factor kg ha-1
EFTSP 1.56
EFPM10 1.56
EFPM2.5 0.06

3.D.e - Cultivated crops

In this sector Germany reports NMVOC emissions from crop production according to EMEP (2013)-3D-32 [10]. For details see Rösemann et al. (2017) [1].

Activity data

The activity data is the area of arable land and grassland. This data is provided by official statistics.

Table 12: AD for the estimation of NMVOC emissions from crop production

2017_3D_Table_12.PNG

Methodology

In EMEP (2013)-3D-32ff [10] the methodology is described how the EMEP Tier 1 EF was estimated. This methodology was adopted to estimate German emissions. It is considered a Tier 2 methodology.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for wheat, rye, rape and grass (15°C) given in EMEP (2013)-3D-34, Table A3-2 [10] were used. For all grassland areas the grass (15°C) EF is used, for all other crops except rye and rape the EF of wheat is used. Table 13 shows the implied emission factors for NMVOC emissions from crop production. The implied emission factor is defined as ratio of the total NMVOC emissions to the total area of crop production.

Table 13: IEF for NMVOC emissions from crop production

2017_3D_Table_13.PNG

3.d.f - Agriculture other including use of pesticides

(on separate page)

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