3.B - Manure Management

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
3.B Manure Management see sub-category details
consisting of / including source categories
3.B.1.a & 3.B.1.b Cattle T3 (NH3), T2 (NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5), T1 (NMVOC) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC) NH3 (L/T), NMVOC (for 3.B.1.a: L, for 3.B.1.b: L/T), for 3.B.1.a: PM2.5 (L)
3.B.2, 3.B.4.d, 3.B.4.e Sheep, Goats, Horses T2 (NH3, NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5), T1 (NMVOC) NS, RS CS (NH3,NOx), D (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC)
3.B.3 Swine T3 (NH3), T2 (NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5), T1 (NMVOC) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC) for 3.B.3: NH3 (L/T), TSP (L), PM10 (L)
3.B.4.g i-iv Poultry T2 (NH3, NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5), T1 (NMVOC) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC) for i: PM10 (L), ii&iii: PM10 (L/T)
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Country specifics

In 2015, NH3 emissions from sector 3.B (manure management) derived up to 36.9 % from total agricultural emissions, which is equal to ~ 266.8 Gg NH3. Within those emissions 50.5 % originate from cattle manure (~ 134.6 Gg), 34.9 % from pig manure (ca. 93.1 Gg), and 11.7 % from poultry manure (~ 31.1 Gg). The impact of anaerobic digestion of manure on the emission calculations is taken into account. Since emissions from application of manure to soils are reported for the first time in sector 3.D, the NH3 emissions reported from sector 3.B decreased massively compared to the last submission. If 3.D emissions from application of manure are added to the 3.B emissions there are only minor changes in NH3 emissions from animals (for details see Rösemann et al., 2017, [1]).

NOx emissions from sector 3 B (manure management) contribute only 1.5 % (~ 2.0 Gg) to the total agricultural NOx emissions. They are calculated proportionally to N2O emissions. (see Rösemann et al., 2017, [1]).

NMVOC emissions from sector 3.B (manure management) derived up to 95.3 % from total agricultural NMVOC emissions, which is equal to ~ 198.6 Gg NMVOC (see Rösemann et al., 2017, [1]).

In 2015, manure management contributes 72.8 % (46.4 Gg), 65.0 % (32.5 Gg) and 91.8 % (7.5 Gg) to the total agricultural TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions (TSP: 63.9 Gg, PM10: 50.0 Gg, PM2.5: 8.2 Gg), respectively.

Activity data for all pollutants

The Federal Statistical Agency and the Statistical Agencies of the federal states carry out surveys in order to collect, along with other data, the head counts of animals. In general the results of these surveys are used for emission calculations, for details see Rösemann et al., 2017 [1].
The animal population figures the actual inventory is based on are presented in Table 1. Buffaloes are included in the cattle population figures, mules and asses are included in the horse population figures (IE). In the first years after the German reunification (1990), animal livestock decreased markedly. The head counts for cattle, swine, horses, sheep and goats decreased further between 2005 and 2010 while since 2010 the figures of dairy cattle and pigs slightly increased. Figures for broilers and turkeys are showing a massive increase compared with 1990 figures, laying hens and pullet figures compared with 2010. A detailed description of the animal figures used can be found in the National Inventory Report (NIR 2017 [11]), Chapter 5.1.3.2.

Table 1: Population of animals

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Additional data

Emission calculations in accordance with a Tier 2 or Tier 3 method require data on animal performance (animal weight, weight gain, milk yield, milk protein content, milk fat content, numbers of births, numbers of eggs and weights of eggs) and on the relevant feeding details (phase feeding, feed components, protein and energy content, digestibility and feed efficiency). To subdivide officially recorded total numbers of turkeys into roosters and hens, the respective population percentages need to be known.
Most of the data mentioned above is not available from official statistics and was obtained from the open literature, from association publications, from regulations for agricultural consulting in Germany and from expert judgements.
For 1991, 1995 and 1999, frequency distributions of feeding strategies, husbandry systems (shares of pasturing/stabling; shares of various housing methods), storage types as well as techniques of farm manure spreading were obtained with the help of the RAUMIS agricultural sector model (Regionalisiertes Agrar- und UmweltInformationsystem für Deutschland; Regionalised agricultural and environmental information system for Germany). RAUMIS has been developed and is operated by the Institute of Rural Studies of the Thünen Institut (Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries). For an introduction to RAUMIS see Weingarten (1995) [6]; a detailed description is provided in Henrichsmeyer et al. (1996) [7].
1991 RAUMIS data are used for the years 1990 to 1993, 1995 RAUMIS data for the years 1994 to 1997, and 1999 RAUMIS data for the years 1998 and 1999.
For the year 2010 respective data are used that were derived from the 2010 official agricultural census and the simultaneous survey of agricultural production methods (Landwirtschaftliche Zählung 2010, Statistisches Bundesamt) as well as the 2011 survey on manure application practices (Erhebung über Wirtschaftsdüngerausbringung, Statistisches Bundesamt) became available. For details see Rösemann et al. (2017) [1].
The gaps between the latest RAUMIS data (1999) and the new data were closed by linear interpolation on district level. For 2011 to 2015 the 2010 data was kept, with the exception that for 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 it was assumed that liquid manure and digestates applied to bare soil were incorporated within 4 hours at the most. This assumption is based on administrative instructions of the German Federal States for implementing the German Fertilization Ordinance in 2011. NIR 2017 [11], Chapter 19.3.2. provides time series of the distribution data mentioned above, including corresponding EFs.

NH3 & NOx

Methodology

N in manure management

N excretion

In order to determine NH3 and NOx emissions from manure management of a specific animal category, the individual N excretion rate must be known. While default excretion rates are provided by IPCC Guidelines, the German agricultural emission inventory uses N mass balances to calculate the N excretions of almost all animal categories to be reported. N mass balance calculations consider N intake with feed, N retention due to growth, N contained in milk and eggs, and N in offspring. Table 2 presents mean N excretions, see also the National Inventory Report (NIR 2017 [11]), Chapter 5.1.3.4, and mean TAN excretions (see below). For methodological details and mass balance input data Rösemann et al. (2017) [1].

Table 2: National means of N excretions and TAN contents

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N mass flow and emission assessment

The calculation of the emissions of NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 from German animal husbandry is based on the so-called N mass flow approach. This method reconciles the requirements of both the Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook for NH3 emissions and the IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas emissions (Dämmgen and Hutchings, 2008, [3]). According to the N mass flow approach the N flow within the manure management system is treated as depicted in the figure below. In Europe, this approach is also applied in Denmark, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In spite of national peculiarities, a comparison of the national solutions showed identical results as long as standardised data sets for the input variables were used (Reidy et al., 2008, [2]). The approach differentiates between N excreted with faeces (organic nitrogen Norg, i. e. undigested feed N) and urine (total ammoniacal nitrogen TAN, i. e. fraction of feed N metabolized). Note that emissions from grazing and application are reported in sector 3.D.

Not explicitly shown in the N mass flow scheme is air scrubbing in housing and anaerobic digestion of manure. These issues are separately described farther below.

N_flow_model.jpg

General scheme of N flows in animal husbandry
m: mass from which emissions may occur. Narrow broken arrows: TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen); narrow continuous arrows: organic N. The horizontal arrows denote the process of immobilisation in systems with bedding occurring in the house, and the process of mineralisation during storage, which occurs in any case. Broad arrows denote N-emissions assigned to manure management (Eyard NH3 emissions from yards; Ehouse NH3 emissions from house; Estorage NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 emissions from storage; Eapplic NH3 emissions during and after spreading; Egraz NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 emissions during and after grazing; Esoil N2O, NOx and N2 emissions from soil resulting from manure input).

The figure allows tracing of the pathways of the two N fractions after excretion. The various locations where excretion may take place are considered. The partial mass flows down to the input to soil are depicted. During storage Norg can be transformed into TAN and vice versa. Both the way and the amount of such transformations may be influenced by manure treatment processes like, e. g., anaerobic digestion where a considerable fraction of Norg is mineralized to TAN. For details see Rösemann et al., 2017, [1]. Where ever NH3 is emitted, its formation is related to the amount of the TAN present. NOx emissions (i. e. NO emissions) are calculated proportionally to the N2O emissions. The latter are related to the total amount of N available (Norg + TAN). Note that the N2O, NOx and N2 emissions from the various storage systems include the respective emissions from the related housing systems.
Actually, for poultry the excretion of uric acid nitrogen (UAN) should be used instead of TAN (see Dämmgen and Erisman, 2005, [5]). In line with EMEP (2013) it is assumed that UAN excreted is considered TAN.

Air scrubber systems in swine husbandry

The inventory considers the effect of air scrubbing facilities in pig production. Based on KTBL data, 80 % of the NH3 emissions during housing are removed if animal places are equipped with air scrubbers. For TSP and PM10 the dust removal rates are set to 90 % and for PM2.5 to 70 %, respectively. In 2015 7.2 % of all pig places were equipped with air scrubbers.
The amounts of NH3-N removed by air scrubbing are completely added to the pools of total N and TAN before landspreading (for details see Rösemann et al., 2017, [1]).

Anaerobic digestion of manure

Anaerobic digestion of manure is treated like a particular storage type that, however, comprises three sub-compartments (pre-storage, fermenter and storage of digestates). The resulting digestates is liquid. Two different types of digestates storage systems are considered, i. e. gastight storage and open tank. For the open tank it is taken into account that there is a natural crust because of the usual co-fermentation of energy crops. As the amount of TAN in the digestates is higher than in untreated slurry and the frequencies of spreading techniques differ from those for untreated slurry, spreading of digestates and resulting emissions are calculated separately from spreading of slurry.
NH3 and NO emissions occur from pre-storage of solid manure, from non-gastight storage of digestates and from landspreading of digestates (for the first time NH3 emissions, like NO emissions from landspreading of digested manure are reported in 3.Da.2.a). Note that NH3 and NO emissions calculated with respect to the digestion of animal manures do not comprise the contributions by co-digested energy crops. The latter are dealt with separately in 3.D.a.2.c and 3.I. There are no emissions of NH3 and NO from pre-storage of slurry, from the fermenter and from gastight storage of digestates (for details see Rösemann et al., 2017, [1]).

Emission Factors

Application of the N mass flow approach requires detailed emission factors for NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 describing the emissions from the various housing and storage systems NH3 emission factors for the various manure application techniques are now used in section 3.D.

In general, the detailed NH3 emission factors are related to the amount of TAN available at the various stages of the N flow chain. These NH3, emission factors are mainly country specific but are also taken from EMEP (2013) [10]. No specific NH3 emission factors are known for the application of digested manure. However, the viscosity of digested manure resembles that of untreated cattle slurry (due to co-fermentation of energy crops). Hence, the emission factors for untreated cattle slurry are adopted (see Rösemann et al., 2017, [1]).

The detailed emission factors for N2O, NOx and N2 relate to the amount of N available which is N excreted plus (in case of solid manure systems) N input with bedding material. The N2O emission factors are taken from IPCC (2006) [4], except for the emission factor for solid manure systems which is country specific. The emission factors for NOx and N2 are approximated as proportional to the N2O emission factors. This proportionality is also applied to anaerobic digestion of manure, where N2O emissions occur from pre-storage of solid manure and non-gastight storage of digestates with natural crust, the emission factors being those used for normal storage of solid manure and the storage of untreated slurry with natural crust provided by IPCC (2006). Note that the inventory model calculates NO rather than NOx. The NO emissions are then converted to NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/30 meaning a transformation into NO2. Equivalently, this conversion can also be applied to the emission factors as is shown in Table 3.
For a detailed description of the emission factors see Rösemann et al. (2017) [1].

Another type of emission factor is the implied emission factor (IEF). It describes the total of emissions obtained from the N mass flow approach and is defined as the ratio of the total emission from an animal category to the respective number of animals. Table 3 shows the implied emission factors of NH3 and NOx for the various animal categories

Table 3: IEF for NH3 & NOx from manure management

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NMVOC

In 2015, NMVOC emissions from manure management amount to 95.3 % of total NMVOC emissions from the agricultural sector. Within the emissions from manure management 76.1 % originate from cattle, 7.5 % from pigs, and 14.7 % from poultry. NMVOC emissions from manure management are adjusted since they were not considered in the calculation of the NEC totals.

Method

The Tier 1 methodology provided by EMEP (2013)-3B-15 [10] was used to assess the emissions of NMVOC from manure management.

Activity data

Animal numbers serve as activity data, see Table 1.

Emission factors

Tier 1 emission factors for NMVOC are provided in EMEP (2013)-3B-16, Table 3-3 [10]. For cattle, sheep, goats and horses there are different emission factors for feeding with and without silage. Only for cattle and horses the emission factors for feeding with silage were chosen. The implied emission factors given in Table 4 relate the overall NMVOC emissions to the number of animals in each animal category. They correspond to the EMEP Tier 1 emission factors, except for horses, sheep and swine. These categories comprise subcategories with different EMEP Tier 1 emission factors so that their overall IEFs in Table 4 represent national mean values.

Table 4: IEF for NMVOC from manure management

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TSP, PM10 & PM2.5

In 2015, TSP emissions from manure management amount to 72.6 % of total emissions from the agricultural sector. Within the emissions from manure management 22.3 % originate from cattle, 31.8 % from pigs, and 45.3 % from poultry.
In 2015, 65.0 % of the PM10 emissions from the agricultural sector are caused by manure management, where 14.7 % originate from cattle, 20.2 % from pigs, and 64.8 % from poultry.
In 2015, PM2.5 emissions from the agricultural sector mostly originate from manure management (91.8 %), of which are 41.3 % from cattle, 16.8 % from pigs, and 41.1 % from poultry.

Method

EMEP (2013)-3B-26 [10]) provides a Tier 2 methodology to assess the emissions of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 from animal housing. This method was adopted. In addition, air scrubber systems in swine husbandry are considered. However, EMEP(2013)-3B-33 [10]) states that the emission factors are a first estimate only, thus the calculations in this inventory provide only a first estimate of emissions of particulate matter from animal husbandry.

Activity data

Animal numbers serve as activity data, see Table 1.

Emission factors

Tier 2 emission factors for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 from animal housing are provided in EMEP (2013)-3B-29, Table 3-11 and 53, Table A3-4 [10]. For cattle and swine these emission factors differentiate between slurry and solid manure systems, for laying hens they differentiate between cages and perchery.
The implied emission factors given in Table 5 relate the overall TSP and PM emissions to the number of animals in each animal category.

Table 5: IEF for TSP, PM10 & PM2.5 from manure management

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