2 D 3 i Other Solvent Use

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

Short Description

The following product groups and processes are taken into consideration:

  • Glass and mineral wool enduction
  • Fat, edible and non-edible oil extraction
  • Application of glues and adhesives (paper and packaging; wood; footwear; transport; Do-it-yourself-applications; others)
  • Preservation of wood
  • Underseal treatment and conservation of vehicles
  • Vehicles dewaxing
  • Other:
    • Plant protectives
    • Dichlormethane in strippers
    • Removal of paints from incorrectly coated alumium parts
    • Removal of paint from steel parts
    • Concrete additives
    • De-icing (Aircraft de-icing; De-icing of operated areas; Other de-icing applications)
    • Applications in scientific laboratories (R&D; analyses; universities)
    • Lubricants

‘NMVOC’ is defined in keeping with the VOC definition found in the EC solvents directive. For purposes of the definition of solvents, the term ‘solvent use’ is also defined in keeping with the EC solvents directive.

Method

General procedure

NMVOC emissions are calculated in keeping with a product-consumption-oriented approach. In this approach, solvent-based products or solvents are allocated to the source category, and then the relevant NMVOC emissions are calculated from those solvent quantities via specific emission factors. Thus, the use of this method is possible with the following valid input figures for each product group:

  • Quantities of VOC-containing (pre-) products and agents used in the report year,
  • The VOC concentrations in these products (substances and preparations),
  • The relevant application and emission conditions (or the resulting specific emission factor).

The quantity of the solvent-based (pre-)product corresponds to the domestic consumption which is the sum of domestic production plus import minus export.

VOC Emission = domestic consumption of a certain product * solvent content * specific emission factor

The calculated NMVOC emissions of different product groups for a source category are then aggregated.
The product / substance quantities used are determined at the product-group level with the help of production and foreign-trade statistics. Where possible, the so-determined domestic-consumption quantities are then further verified via cross-checking with industry statistics.

Discussion of emission trends

General information

Since 1990, so the data, NMVOC emissions from use of solvents and solvent-containing products in general have decreased by nearly 38%. The main emissions reductions have been achieved in the years since 1999. This successful reduction has occurred especially because of regulatory provisions such as the 31st Ordinance on the execution of the Federal Immissions Control Act (Ordinance on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain facilities – 31. BImSchV), the 2nd such ordinance (Ordinance on the limitation of emissions of highly volatile halogenated organic compounds – 2. BImSchV) and the TA Luft.

Specific information

Until 1999, data of the present source categories 2.D.3.a, 2.D.3.h and 2.D.3.i were treated as one source group. Since 2000, a more detailed data collection enables to follow the development of source group 2.D.3.i, which accounts for about 1/5 to 1/4 of total NMVOC emissions from solvent-based products (Figures 1-3). Compared to 2005, emissions went down mainly due to a clearly reduced consumption of concrete additives.

Figure 1: Development of NMVOC emissions of category 2.D.3.i since 2005.

Figure 2: Development of NMVOC emissions from source groups 2.D.3.a, h, i in comparison to total NMVOC emissions from solvent-based products and applications since 1990.


Figure 3: Share of NMVOC emissions from source groups 2.D.3.a, h, i on total NMVOC emissions from solvent-based products and applications since 1990.

A decrease in the NMVOC emissions of Category 2.F.3.i can be observed since 2005. Table 1 lists six product groups that cause major emissions in category 2.D.3.i.

Major emissions from … 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Lubricants  20% 22% 23% 25% 22% 20% 27% 28% 27% 34% 32%
Concrete additives 34% 41% 36% 29% 26% 35% 25% 22% 19% 15% 16%
Underseal treatment and conservation of vehicles 9% 8% 8% 9% 11% 8% 10% 11% 12% 13% 13%
Application of glues and additives 16% 10% 12% 15% 14% 11% 14% 15% 15% 14% 14%
Deicing 8% 7% 8% 7% 10% 14% 9% 5% 9% 7% 7%
Fat, edible and non-edible oil extraction 4% 4% 6% 6% 7% 5% 6% 6% 7% 5% 5%

Table 1: List of product groups that primarily contributed to NMVOC emissions of category 2.D.3.i. The table presents the share of emissions on total emissions of this source group. These six activities comprise together 88 – 93% of total emissions of 2.D.3.i depending on the considered years.

Major emissions from … 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Lubricants 100% 119% 117% 109% 79% 103% 111% 111% 104% 116% 108%
Concrete additives 100% 134% 108% 76% 57% 107% 62% 53% 43% 30% 32%
Underseal treatment and conservation of vehicles 100% 101% 93% 93% 94% 95% 96% 106% 107% 107% 108%
Application of glues and additives 100% 72% 73% 79% 66% 72% 72% 72% 69% 59% 59%
De-icing 100% 103% 101% 74% 98% 181% 96% 55% 86% 62% 61%
Fat, edible and non-edible oil extraction 100% 110% 134% 115% 115% 115% 115% 119% 123% 80% 87%

Table 2: List of product groups that primarily contributed to emissions of category 2.D.3.i and their relative development compared to 2005.

Uncertainty

Uncertainties for emissions for each technology / application were obtained by error propagation and refer to the 95% confidence interval.
Domestic Consumption: The applied relative uncertainty was ±10% for all applications.
Solvent content: For each application / product, a relative error at ±15% was applied (exception: lubricants at 25%), but not exceeding 100% or falling below 0%.
Emission factors: A relative error at ±15% was applied, but not exceeding 100% or falling below 0%. Exceptions were de-icing applications, applications in scientific laboratories and lubricants with a relative error at 25%.
Hence, the overall uncertainty of emissions caused by application of products of this source group is between 40% and 60%.

Recalculations

Data for 2010 until 2014 were re-calculated based on the final foreign trade statistics. Furthermore, a consistency check of the category 2.D.3.i showed a need for slight corrections and improvements in selected calculations for the years 2005 until 2014, which led to the following changes:

Before Recalculation After Recalculation
2005 (combined value 2.D.3.a / h / i) 149,29 kt
2006 170,17 kt 165,75 kt
2007 159,51 kt 153,39 kt
2008 137,71 kt 131,42 kt
2009 118,26 kt 110,44 kt
2010 164,87 kt 154,86 kt
2011 134,71 kt 125,05 kt
2012 130,15 kt 119,38 kt
2013 121,96 kt 114,78 kt
2014 109,50 kt 102,74 kt

Table 3: Recalculations for 2.D.3.i for the period 2005 – 2014.

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