2.C.1 - Iron & Steel Production

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
2.C.1 Iron & Steel Production T2 NS CS SO2 (L), CO (L/T), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (L/T), TSP (L/T), Pb (L/T), Cd (L/T), PCDD/F (L/T)
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In 2015, a total of 30.1 million t of raw steel was produced in six integrated steelworks. Electrical steel production amounted to another 12.6 million t.

Methodological issues

This sector comprises process-related emissions from oxygen steel and electric-steel production.
The last Siemens-Martin steel works (Stahlwerk Brandenburg) was shut down shortly after 1990; the last Thomas steel works (Maxhütte Sulzbach-Rosenberg) discontinued the production in 2002. Due to their minor relevance and the phasing out, the emissions from Siemens-Martin and Thomas steel production are jointly calculated with the emissions from oxygen steel production. The other structural elements are sinter production, hot iron production, hot rolling, iron and steel foundries (including malleable casting).
Energy-related emissions from steel production for the years 1990 - 1994 (for individual pollutants until 1999) are reported under 1.A.2.a.

Activity data

Activity data are surveyed plant specific and submitted by national statistics. After discontinuation of the special statistics for iron and steel production (FS. 4, R. 8.1), the information is collected by the German steel trade association Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl (WV Stahl) based on a formal agreement.
In the iron and steel industry, only minor amounts of secondary fuels are used for pig iron production in individual blast furnaces. They are used as substitute reducing agents, instead of coke. To date, these materials have not yet been included in the national statistics and in the Energy Balance. For this reason, the data used was provided by the steel trade association (Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl) .

Emission factors

The emission factors used for emissions calculation are based on emission data from individual plants, either determined by the Umweltbundesamt (UBA) itself (emission factors for 1995 - 2001) or by a research project (emission factors for 2008). As the EF for the years 1995 - 2001 as well as for 2008 are based on real stack emission data, it is not possible to distinguish between combustion and process emissions (they are emitted via the same stacks). Hence whereever plant-based EF were availaible, i.e. for most pollutants for the years 1995 and later, all emissions are reported under 2.C.1.

Please note that the reported emissions now also cover diffuse emissions from sources that were not covered in previous reporting periods, nor in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook. For many pollutants and sources, individual EFs for channelled as well as diffuse emissions have been determined. While there is sufficient knowledge and measurement data of channelled emissions, the emission data concerning diffuse sources is usually based on estimations, using parameters adapted to the local conditions of the individual emission source. Therefore, emission data for one source of diffuse emissions is hardly significant for the diffuse emissions from other plants. The emission factors given below were calculated as the weighted average of pollution loads reported for individual diffuse sources by the plant operators, in relation to their corresponding production amounts.

pollutant Type of source EF 1995 EF 2000 EF 2005 EF 2010 unit Trend
2.C.1 Sinter production
Cd 0.000098 0.000098 0.000052 0.000017 kg/t falling
CO 19.152 17.325 15.497 14.4 kg/t falling
Cr 0.000077 0.000077 0.000044 0.00002 kg/t falling
Hg 0.000059 0.000059 0.000028 0.000005 kg/t falling
Ni 0.000139 0.000139 0.000068 0.000015 kg/t falling
NMVOC 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 kg/t constant
NOx 0.558 0.46 0.401 kg/t falling
PAH 248.571 177.143 120 120 mg/t falling
Pb 0.005299 0.005299 0.003242 0.0017 kg/t falling
PCB 2.285714 1.571429 1 1 mg/t falling
PCDD/F 3.008 1.508 0.868 0.773 µg/t falling
SO2 1.08 0.837 0.691 kg/t falling
TSP channelled 0.65 0.465 0.234 0.09 kg/t falling
TSP diffuse 0.046 kg/t new EF
PM10 channelled 0.445 0.336 0.177 0.07 kg/t falling
PM10 diffuse 0.016 kg/t new EF
PM2.5 channelled 0.214 0.206 0.13 0.056 kg/t falling
2.C.1 Pig iron production
B(a)P 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 mg/t constant
Cd channelled 0.000004 0.000004 0.000004 0.000004 kg/t constant
Cd diffuse 0.000000203 0.000000203 0.000000203 0.000000203 kg/t constant
CO channelled 1.18 0.915 0.65 0.491 kg/t falling
CO diffuse 0.398 0.398 0.398 0.398 kg/t constant
Cr channelled 0.000019 0.000006 0.000002 0.000001 kg/t falling
Cr diffuse 0.000008 0.000008 0.000008 0.000008 kg/t constant
Hg channelled 0.000002436 0.000000192 0.000000015 0.000000003 kg/t falling
Hg diffuse 0.000000005 0.000000005 0.000000005 0.000000005 kg/t constant
Ni channelled 0.000021 0.000006 0.000002 0.000001 kg/t falling
Ni diffuse 0.000008 0.000008 0.000008 0.000008 kg/t constant
NMVOC 0.018525 0.018525 0.018525 0.018525 kg/t constant
NOx channelled 0.051938 0.051938 0.051938 0.0517 kg/t falling
NOx diffuse 0.000001 0.000001 0.000001 0.000001 kg/t constant
Pb channelled 0.000021 0.000021 0.000021 0.000022 kg/t rising
Pb diffuse 0.000011 0.000011 0.000011 0.000011 kg/t constant
PCDD/F 0.026 0.009 0.004 0.004 µg/t falling
SO2 channelled 0.242 0.242 0.242 0.242 kg/t constant
SO2 diffuse 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 kg/t constant
TSP channelled 0.022 0.015 0.01 0.008 kg/t falling
TSP diffuse 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.016 kg/t constant
PM10 channelled 0.013 0.009 0.006 0.006 kg/t falling
PM10 diffuse 0.007 0.007 0.007 0.007 kg/t constant
PM2.5 channelled 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.004 kg/t rising
2.C.1 Oxygen steel production
Cd 0.000053 0.000038 0.000024 0.000016 kg/t falling
CO 11.5 11.077 10.654 10.4 kg/t falling
Cr channelled 0.000715 0.000306 0.000125 0.000028 kg/t falling
Cr diffuse 0.000069 kg/t new EF
Ni channelled 0.00013 0.00013 0.00013 0.000006 kg/t falling
Ni diffuse 0.000004 kg/t new EF
NOx channelled 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.004 kg/t falling
NOx diffuse 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037 kg/t constant
PAH 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 mg/t constant
Pb channelled 0.002941 0.001883 0.000824 0.000189 kg/t falling
Pb diffuse 0.000278 kg/t new EF
PCB 3.6 3.6 1 1 mg/t falling
PCDD/F 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.069 µg/t falling
SO2 diffuse 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 kg/t constant
TSP channelled 0.155 0.145 0.145 0.024 kg/t falling
TSP diffuse 0.049 kg/t new EF
PM10 channelled 0.099 0.093 0.093 0.02 kg/t falling
PM10 diffuse 0.019 kg/t new EF
PM2.5 channelled 0.025 0.023 0.023 0.017 kg/t falling
2.C.1 Electric steel production
B(a)P 2.531 1.661 0.792 0.271 mg/t falling
Cd 0.00024 0.000157 0.000065 0.000016 kg/t falling
CO channelled 1.7 1.187 0.674 0.366 kg/t falling
CO diffuse 0.001 kg/t new EF
Cr channelled 0.000481 0.000206 0.000258 0.000323 kg/t fluctuating
Cr diffuse 0.000851 0.000851 0.000851 0.000851 kg/t constant
Hg channelled 0.000306 0.000288 0.000154 0.00007 kg/t falling
Ni channelled 0.000483 0.000207 0.000145 0.000124 kg/t falling
Ni diffuse 0.000284 0.000284 0.000284 0.000284 kg/t constant
NMVOC 0.025 0.014 0.008 0.006 kg/t constant
NOx channelled 0.122 0.12 0.106 0.098 kg/t falling
NOx diffuse 0.014 kg/t new EF
PAH 68 68 3.8 3.793 mg/t falling
Pb channelled 0.004075 0.001747 0.00072 0.000169 kg/t falling
Pb diffuse 0.000056 kg/t new EF
PCB 8 8 1.5 1.5 mg/t falling
PCDD/F 0.5 0.5 0.158 0.158 µg/t falling
SO2 channelled 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.113 kg/t rising
SO2 diffuse 0.004 kg/t new EF
TSP channelled 0.28 0.12 0.074 0.018 kg/t falling
TSP diffuse 0.043 kg/t new EF
PM10 channelled 0.179 0.08 0.051 0.013 kg/t falling
PM10 diffuse 0.007 kg/t new EF
PM2.5 channelled 0.045 0.04 0.038 0.011 kg/t falling
2.C.1 Hot and cold rolling
CO 0.005 kg/t new EF
NH3 0.001 0.001 0.001 kg/t constant
NMVOC 0.003 0.003 0.003 kg/t constant
NOx 0.41 0.276 0.196 kg/t falling
SO2 0.059 0.05 0.044 kg/t falling
TSP channelled 0.02 kg/t new EF
TSP diffuse 0.01 kg/t new EF
PM10 channelled 0.000304 kg/t new EF
PM10 diffuse 0.000645 kg/t new EF
PM2.5 channelled 0.000266 kg/t new EF
2.C.1 Iron and steel casting
pollutant EF 2010 unit Trend
B(a)P 10 mg/t constant
NH3 0.027 kg/t falling
NMVOC 0.15 kg/t constant
NOx 0.242 kg/t falling
PAH 100 mg/t constant
PCDD/F 0.19 µg/t constant
SO2 0.256 kg/t falling
TSP 0.2 kg/t constant
PM10 0.137 kg/t constant
PM2.5 0.0836 kg/t constant

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 2.C.1 - Iron and Steel is a key category for SO2, CO, PM2.5, PM10, TSP, Pb, Hg, Cd, Pb and PCDD/F.

Recalculations

Recalculations were necessary due to some updated activity data for the last reported year, and due to the correct interpolation of individual EFs between years when they were redetermined.

Planned improvements

Currently, no source specific improvements are planned.

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