2.A.5.b Construction And Demolition

Last updated on 07 Mar 2017 10:33 (cf. Authors)

2.A.5.b - Construction

Short description
Information about the key source relevance can be found in 2.A Mineral Industry. For particulate emissions, Construction is the main emissions source in the Mineral industries.

Since the last update of the UNECE Guidebook we use the Tier 1 method to estimate the national emissions of particulate matters. The approach for uncontrolled fugitive emissions for this source category was adapted for national circumstances within a research Project (Umweltbundesamt, 2016) [1], partly considered exiting control techniques. As a result, the information of the statistics is combined with modified default emission factors for TSP and PM.
Activity data
Activity data are determined taking into account figures for various construction activities. Data is based on production statistics (national statistics). According to the method used, figures of area of land affected by construction activities per building were concluded from statistical data and multiplied with emission factors, as explained below. The common uncertainty of 3% for national statistics could be increased as a result of this calculation, but the effect is not estimated at the moment.

Emission factors
The emission factors used are results of Adaptation of UNECE-Defaults (EEA, 2016) [2], see chapter NFR 2.A.5.b for different kind of buildings.

kind of building pollutant EF (CS) unit Trend
single and two family houses TSP 0.0638 kg/m2 * y constant
single and two family houses PM10 0.0191 kg/m2 * y constant
single and two family houses PM2.5 0.0019 kg/m2 * y constant
apartment buildings TSP 0.329 kg/m2 * y constant
apartment buildings PM10 0.099 kg/m2 * y constant
apartment buildings PM2.5 0.0099 kg/m2 * y constant
non-residential TSP 0.631 kg/m2 * y constant
non-residential PM10 0.189 kg/m2 * y constant
non-residential PM2.5 0.0189 kg/m2 * y constant
roads TSP 1674 t/km2 * y constant
roads PM10 502 t/km2 * y constant
roads PM2.5 50.2 t/km2 * y constant
Several further assumptions were necessary to use the formula of the Guidebook:
The EF is adapted with Moisture Level Correction factor and Silt Content Correction factor in all cases, both 0.20 and 2.22. The assumption about the duration of the construction activity uses the Default values.
Type of building Estimated duration (year)
Construction of houses (single and two family) 0.5 (6 months)
Construction of apartments (all types) 0.75 (9 months)
Non-residential construction 0.83 (10 months)
Road construction 1 (12 months)

Source (EEA, 2016) [2]

AD is a result of multiplying B the number of houses constructed and f the conversion factor.

Trends in emissions

All trends in emissions as product of EF and AD correspond to trends of construction activities.


Recalculations were necessary for the whole time series with a significant increase of emissions as result. The 1990 emissions were estimated for the first time.

[kt] latest submission current submission change
Year TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5
1990 0,0 0,0 0,0 40,1 12,0 1,2 40,1 12,0 1,2
1995 9,3 4,7 0,5 49,2 14,8 1,5 39,9 10,1 1,0
2000 8,7 4,4 0,4 55,4 16,6 1,7 46,7 12,3 1,2
2005 6,1 3,0 0,3 39,5 11,8 1,2 33,4 8,8 0,9
2010 6,0 3,0 0,3 32,2 9,7 1,0 26,2 6,7 0,7

For information in context to other categories in 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables in overview chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Where can I find emissions estimation of demolition activities? - Demolishing without any significant new construction is not covered and there are no other emission factors available for demolition activities only.

1. Umweltbundesamt, 2016: Development of Methods for the Generation of Emission Data for Air Pollutants from Building Activity and Construction Zones, Dessau-Roßlau, 2016;
Document (PDF)
2. EEA, 2016: EEA Report No 21/2016 EMEP EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016;
URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/EJ6RT9P2Y3
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