2.A.1 Cement Production

Last updated on 07 Mar 2017 09:09 (cf. Authors)

2.A.1 - Cement Production

Short description
The remarks below refer to production of cement clinkers and clinker grinding (only relevant as a source for particulate matter). The clinker-burning with intensive use of energy emits climate-relevant gases. CO2 accounts for the great majority of these emissions, but heavy metals are important too. Information about the key source relevance can be found in [[2-a-mineral-industry | 2.A Mineral Industry]].

Method

Activity data
Activity data are determined via summation of figures for individual plants (until 1994, activity data were determined on the basis of data of the BDZ (restructuring-tip in german)). As of 1995, following optimisation of data collection within the association, activity data were compiled by the German Cement Works Association (VDZ), and by its VDZ research institute (located in Düsseldorf), via surveys of German cement works and use of BDZ figures. The data are supplemented with data for plants that are not BDZ members (in part, also VDZ estimates).
The data for 2015 were not available by the VDZ - the German Cement Association. A comparison for the years before (2005-2014) showed a good correlation between information of the European Emissions Trading (ETS) and the cement clinker production data of the VDZ. So, the cement clinker information of inventory 2017 is based on aggregated data of ETS. All companies are required to report production data within the framework of CO2-ETS. The EU monitoring guidelines for emissions trading specify a maximum accuracy of 2.5 %.

Emission factors
The emission factors used for emissions calculation are based on figures for individual plants and from research projects as well as from expert judgements.

In the German cement industry, dust separated from clinker burning exhaust gas is returned to the burning process. As a result, there is no need to take account of significant losses of particles via the exhaust-gas pathway. - On the other hand, particulate matter emissions occur during clinker grinding.

pollutant Name of Category EF unit Trend
NOx clinker burning 0.66 kg/t falling
SO2 clinker burning 0.26 kg/t falling
NMVOC clinker burning 0.046 kg/t constant
NH3 clinker burning 0.063 kg/t falling
Hg clinker burning 0.026 g/t falling
Pb clinker burning 0.018 g/t falling
Cd clinker burning 0.005 g/t falling
PCB clinker burning 28.0 µg/t constant
PCDD clinker burning 0.040 µg/t constant
B(a)P clinker burning 1.0 mg/t constant
PAH clinker burning 240 mg/t constant
TSP clinker grinding 0.052 kg/t falling
PM10 clinker grinding 0.047 kg/t falling
PM2.5 clinker grinding 0.043 kg/t falling

Emissions of HCB are not applicable according to a research result.

Trends in emissions

All trends in emissions correspond to trends of emission factors in table above. No rising trends are to identify.

Recalculations

Recalculations were not necessary.

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