1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.a ii (i) Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

In NFR category 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation: LTO emissions from domestic flights between German airports occuring during LTO stage (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) are reported.
In the following, information on sub-category specific AD, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.


Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV [1] as described above.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
10,261 10,531 11,720 10,519 10,812 10,827 10,976 10,701 10,737 10,899 10,130 8,946 9,001 9,001

As explained above, the use of aviation gasoline is - due to a lack of further information - assumed to entirely take place within the LTO-range. As soon as better data allows the split-up of the consumption of aviation gasoline onto national and international aviation and onto both flight stages, Germany will accordingly adjust its inventory.

Table 2: annual avgas consumption, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
2,438 1,142 1,120 698 653 611 638 594 568 614 558 496 472 553

Emission factors

All country-specific emission factors used for emission reporting were basically ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [2] and have since then been compiled, revised and maintained in TREMOD AV [1].

Furthermore, the newly implemented EF(BC) have been estimated via f-BCs as provided in the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook [3], Chapter 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, page 49: "Conclusion".

For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2015 emission estimates
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
[kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g I-Teq] [mg/TJ]
Kerosene 4.001 17.82 2892 4.651 2332 1.974 0.958 NE NE NE NE NE
Avgas NE 1863 2613 0.511 15,4063 0.467 0.467 15.175 0.078 9.486 NE 919 919 89.6 205 2.133 NE NE NE

1 tier1 EF derived from [1]
2 annual tier3 EF derived from [1]
3 annual tier2 EF derived from [1]
4 EF(TSP) from Corinair 2007 also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 calculated from the EF(Pb): EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb) - see road transport
6 calculated from the average lead content of AvGas 100 LL (low-lead): 0.56 g Pb/liter
7 tier1 default EF for gasoline passenger cars as sugessted in [3], Chapter: Exhaust emissions from road transport, Table 3-6
8 estimated via a f-BCs (avgas: 0.15, jet kerosene: 0.48) as provided in [3]

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation - LTO is no key source.


Due to the postponed update of the TREMOD AV model, only minor revisions took place compared to submission 2016.

As mentioned in the superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a, the 2014 inland kerosene deliveries were revised based on an updated National Energy Balance 2014.
Hence, the amount of kerosene allocated to sub-category 1.A.3.a ii (i) had to be revised accordingly:

Table 4: Revised 2014 kerosene consumption in 1.A.3.a ii (i), in TJ
Submission 2017 9,001.07
Submission 2016 9,001.12
absolute change -0.05
relative change -0.001%

The resulting marginal changes in emission estimates are not displayed here.

Further but polltutant-specific recalculations result from changes in the emission factors applied.
Here, with the current submission, BC emissions are calculated for the first time based on the BC-fractions* provided in EMEP/EEA Guidebook:

Table 5: EF(BC) 1990-2015 for avgas and kerosene cosumed in 1.A.3.a ii (i), in kg/TJ
avgas kerosene
Submission 2017 0.07 0.95
Submission 2016 NE NE

* f-BC: avgas: 0.15, jet kerosene: 0.48 [3], Chapter: 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, Annex 3: Black carbon (BC) fractions of particulate matter emissions from aviation: Conclusion

Furthermore, based on expert judgement, the country-specific EF for PAH-emssions from the combustion of jet kerosene were replaced by notation key 'NE' as provided in the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook.

Table 6: Replaced EF(PAH)
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]P PAH 1-4
Submission 2017 NE NE NE NE NE
Submission 2016 935 935 91 208 2.168

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


Why are emissions from aviation gasoline reported using a Tier 1 approach whereas for jet kerosene Tier 2a has been applied?

For reporting emissions from the cosumption of jet kerosene, the party uses an annual split factor provided by Eurocontrol to devide the total amount of kerosene used (from Energy Balances & Official oil data for the Federal Republic of Germany) onto national and international civil aviation. For aviation gasoline, such split factor does not exist. - Furthermore, the deviation of kerosene used onto flight stages LTO and Cruise has been carried out using data on numbers of take-offs from German airports provided by the German Federal Statistical Office. At the moment, such data is not available for aircraft using aviation gasoline.

On which basis does the party estimate the reported lead emissions from aviation gasoline?

assumption by party: aviation gasoline = AvGas 100 LL
(AvGas 100 LL is the predominant sort of aviation gasoline in Western Europe)
lead content of AvGas 100 LL: 0.56 g lead/liter (as tetra ethyl lead)

2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook:

Lead is added to aviation gasoline to increase the octane number. The lead content is higher than in leaded car gasoline,…

The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating lead emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport. (There, in contrast to aviation gasoline, the lead content constantly declined resulting in a ban of leaded gasoline in 1997.)

On which basis does the party estimate the reported TSP emissions from aviation gasoline?

The TSP emissions calculated depend directly on the reported lead emissions: The emission factor for TSP is 1.6 times the emission factor used for lead: EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb).
The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating TSP emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport.

1. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2015: TREMOD AV 2015
2. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2012: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, vorläufiger Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/entwicklung-eines-modells-zur-berechnung; Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2012
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. Copenhagen, 2016
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