1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation: LTO

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.a i (i) International Civil Aviation: LTO T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M no key category

In NFR category 1.A.3.a i (i) - Internatinal Civil Aviation: LTO emissions during LTO stage (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) are reported.
In the following, information on sub-category specific AD, (implied) emission factors and emission estimates are provided.


Actitvity Data

Specific jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage is calculated within TREMOD AV as described above.

Table 1: annual jet kerosene consumption during LTO-stage, [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
14,495 19,930 23,190 26,795 28,015 29,359 30,037 28,888 29,932 31,475 31,213 30,812 31,296 31,275

Emission factors

All country specific emission factors used for emission reporting were basically ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [2] and have since then been compiled, revised and maintained in TREMOD AV [1].

Furthermore, the newly implemented EF(BC) have been estimated via f-BCs as provided in the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook, Chapter 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, page 49: "Conclusion".

For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Table 2: (I)EFs used for 2015 emission estimates
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 = PM10 = TSP BC Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
[kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g I-Teq] [mg/TJ]
4.001 19.12 3212 4.651 2172 2.164 1.045 NE NE NE NE NE

1 tier1 EF derived from [1]
2 annual tier3 EF derived from [1]
3 annual tier2 EF derived from [1]
4 EF(TSP) from Corinair 2007 also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
5 estimated via a f-BC of 0.48 as provided in [3]

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation - LTO is no key category.


Due to the postponed update of the TREMOD AV model, only minor revisions took place compared to submission 2016.

As mentioned in the superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a, the 2014 inland kerosene deliveries were revised based on an updated National Energy Balance 2014.
Hence, the amount of kerosene allocated to sub-category 1.A.3.a i (i) had to be revised accordingly:

Table 3: Revised 2014 kerosene usage in 1.A.3.a i (i), in TJ
Submission 2017 31,295.6
Submission 2016 31,295.8
absolute change -0.2
relative change -0.001%

The resulting marginal changes in emission estimates are not displayed here.

Further but polltutant-specific recalculations result from changes in the emission factors applied.
Here, with the current submission, BC emissions are calculated for the first time based on the BC-fractions* provided in EMEP/EEA Guidebook:

Table 4: EF(BC) 1990-2015 for kerosene cosumed in 1.A.3.a i (i), in kg/TJ
Submission 2017 1.04
Submission 2016 NE

* f-BC = 0.48 from [3], Chapter: 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, Annex 3: Black carbon (BC) fractions of particulate matter emissions from aviation: Conclusion

Furthermore, based on expert judgement, the country-specific EF for PAH-emssions from the combustion of jet kerosene were replaced by notation key 'NE' as provided in the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook:

Table 5: Replaced EF(PAH)
B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]P PAH 1-4
Submission 2017 NE NE NE NE NE
Submission 2016 935 935 91 208 2,168

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.


For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

For information on planned improvements, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

1. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2015: TREMOD AV 2015
2. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2012: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/entwicklung-eines-modells-zur-berechnung; Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2012
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2016
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