1.B.2 - Oil And Natural Gas

Last updated on 14 Mar 2017 12:22 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Tanklager.png

The source category 1.B.2 - Fugitive Emissions from Fuels: Oil and Natural Gas comprises a total of 14 sub categories. These categories are further divided, in keeping with oil and gas industry criteria, and in keeping with the industry's process chains.

NFR-Code Name of Category Pollutants Method Activity Data Emission Factor Key Source for (by1)
1.B.2.a Oil NMVOC, SO2 T1, T2 AS please click for details NMVOC (1.B.2.iv: L; 1.B.2.v: T)
1.B.2.b Natural Gas CO, NMVOC, SO2 T1, T2,T3 AS please click for details -
1.B.2.c Venting and Flaring NMVOC, NO2, CO, SO2 T1, T2 CS please click for details -
1.B.3 Geothermal Energy - NA NE NE -

Method

Activity Data

If not otherwise specified all activity data were taken from the annual reports of the Association of the German Petroeum Industry (MWV) [6] and the Association of Oil and Gas Producing (WEG) [7].

1.B.2.a - Oil

  • Emissions from 1.B.2.a.i - Exploration, production, transport consist of emissions from activities of drilling companies and of other participants in the exploration sector. Gas and oil exploration takes place in Germany. Only emissions for successful wells, with such well information taken from the annual report of the Association of Oil and Gas Producing (WEG)] [4,7], are calculated.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
number of wells No. 12 17 15 23 16 24 18
total of drilling meter m 50 140 109 187 41 378 63 994 51 410 48 922 32 773
  • Furthermore, emissions from the petroleum industry's extraction (crude oil) and first treatment of raw materials (petroleum) are included in 1.B.2.a.i as well.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
oil produced kt 3 606 2 958 3 123 3 573 2 516 2 439 2 414
  • Emissions from activities of logistics companies and of operators of pipelines and pipeline networks, including pertinent facilities for storage of relevant materials – i.e. crude oil and intermediate petroleum products are summed up in 1.B.2.a.i as well. Following first treatment, crude oil is transported to refineries. Almost all transports of crude oil take place via pipelines. Pipelines are stationary and, normally, run underground. In contrast to other types of transports, petroleum transports are not interrupted by handling processes.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
Transports of domestically produced crude oil kt 3,606 2,959 3,113 3,573 2,516 2,439 2,414
Transports of imported crude oil kt 84,043 86,063 89,280 97,474 98,084 102,061 102,061
Transports via inland-waterway tankers [12] kt 89 67 112 176 6 54 43

  • Emissions in category 1.B.2.a.iv - Refining / storage consist of emissions from activities of refineries and of refining companies in the petroleum industry. Crude oil and intermediate petroleum products are processed in Germany. For the most part, the companies concerned receive crude oil for refining and processing. To some extent, intermediate petroleum products undergo further processing outside of refineries, in processing networks. Such processing takes place in state-of-the-art plants.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
Quantity of crude oil refined kt 107 058 96 475 107 632 114 589 95 397 91 307 92 870

  • In category 1.B.2.a.v - Distribution of oil products emissions from distribution of oil products are described. Petroleum products are transported via ships, product pipelines, railway tanker cars and tanker trucks, and they are transferred from tanks to other tanks. The main sources of NMVOC emissions from total petrol distribution were fugitive emissions from handling and transfer (filling/unloading) and container losses (tank breathing).
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
number of petrol stations No 19 317 17 957 16 324 15 187 14 744 14 562 14 531
distribution of domestic petrol kt 31 257 30 333 28 833 23 431 19 634 18 527 18 226
distribution of diesel kt 21 817 26 208 28 922 28 531 32 128 35 587 36 756
distribution of jet fuel kt 4 584 5 455 6 939 8 049 8 465 8 526 8 537
distribution of light heating oil kt 31 803 34 785 27 875 25 380 21 005 16 807 16 127






1.B.2.b - Natural Gas

  • Source category 1.B.2.b.i is considered together with source category 1.B.2.a.i (Oil, exploration). Consequently, the aggregated, non-subdivided data of 1.B.2.b.i are included in source category 1.B.2.a.i.

  • The emissions of source category 1.B.2.b.ii consist of emissions related to production.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
Produced quantities of natural gas billion m³ 15.3 19.1 20.1 18.8 12.7 9.2 8.6

  • The emissions of source category 1.B.2.b.iii consist of emissions from the activities of pretreatment and processing. After being brought up from underground reserves, natural gas is first treated in drying and processing plants. As a rule, such pretreatment of the natural gas takes place in facilities located directly at the pumping stations. Such processes separate out associated water from reserves, along with liquid hydrocarbons and various solids. Glycol is then used to remove the water vapour remaining in the gas [WEG 2008a , p. 25]. Natural gas dehydration systems are closed systems. For safety reasons, all of such a system's overpressure protection devices are integrated within a flare system. When such protection devices are triggered, the surplus gas is guided to a flarehead, where it can be safely burned. After drying, the natural gas is ready for sale and can be delivered to customers directly, via pipelines [EXXON 2014]. The relevant quantities of flared gas are reported under 1.B.2.c. The natural gas drawn from Germany's Zechstein geological formation contains hydrogen sulphide. In this original state, the gas – known as "sour gas" – has to be subjected to special treatment. Such gas is transported via separate, specially protected pipelines (due the hazardousness of hydrogen sulphide) to German processing plants that wash out its hydrogen sulphide via chemical and physical processes. About 40 % of the natural gas extracted in Germany is sour gas [WEG 2008]. The natural gas that leaves processing plants is ready for use. The hydrogen sulphide is converted into elementary sulphur and is used primarily by the chemical industry, as a basic raw material.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
Sulphur production from natural gas production kt 915 1,053 1,100 1,050 832 708 628

  • Emissions of source category 1.B.2.b.iv consist of emissions from activities of gas producers and suppliers. In Germany, natural gases (natural gas and oil gas) are transported from production and processing companies/plants to gas suppliers and other processors. In practice, such transports take place via both pipelines (high-pressure pipelines) and containers (tanks). Until 1997, significant amounts of town gas were transported via pipelines. Provided data are taken from BDEW [13] and own research.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
length of Transmission pipelines km 22 696 28 671 32 214 34 086 35 503 35 575 35 595

  • Emissions of source category 1.B.2.b.v consist of emissions from activities of companies that supply gas to customers. In Germany, natural gas is distributed to users primarily via pipeline networks. Gas is distributed via low-pressure pipelines (with pressure up to 100 mbar) and medium-pressure pipelines (with pressure between 100 mbar and 1 bar), made of special plastics, steel / ductile cast iron and grey cast iron. To prevent double-counting, the entire high-pressure pipeline network of companies involved in gas production and long-distance gas transports has been combined within 1.B.2.b.iii.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
distribution network of natural gas1 km 282 612 366 987 363 388 402 391 471,866 502 000 505 000
Data by BDEW [13].






1.B.2.c - Venting and Flaring

  • Pursuant to general requirements of the Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (TA Luft; 2002), gases, steam, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide released from pressure valves and venting equipment must be collected in a gas-collection system. Wherever possible, gases so collected are burned in process combustion. Where such use is not possible, the gases are piped to a flare. Flares used for flaring of such gases must fulfil at least the requirements for flares for combustion of gases from operational disruptions and from safety valves. For refineries (1.B.2.a.iv) and other types of plants in source categories 1.B.2, flares are indispensable safety components. In crude-oil refining, excessive pressures can build up in process systems, for various reasons. Such excessive pressures have to be reduced via safety valves, to prevent tanks and pipelines from bursting. Safety valves release relevant products into pipelines that lead to flares. Flares carry out controlled burning of gases released via excessive pressures. When in place, flare-gas recovery systems liquify the majority of such gases and return them to refining processes or to refinery combustion systems. In the process, 99 % of hydrocarbons are converted to CO2 and H2O. When a plant has such systems in operation, therefore, its flarehead will seldomly show more than a small pilot flame.
unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 2015
flaring of natural gas 1000m³ 36 000 33 000 36 000 18 734 12 092 11 291 10 447






1.B.3 - Geothermal Energy

  • No emission factors for pollutants that could escape in connection with drilling for tapping of geothermal energy (both near-surface and deep energy) are known for Germany at present. From a geoscientific standpoint, however, it is clear that virtually any drilling will lead to releases of gases bound in underground layers – and the gases involved can include H2, CH4, CO2, H2S and Rn [3]. In many cases, and especially in drilling for tapping of geothermal energy near the surface, such emissions would be expected to be very low. "Blow-out preventers", which are safety devices that guard against gas releases, are now used in connection with all deep drilling. In addition, specially modified drilling fluids are used that force gases that are released into the well back into the penetrated rock layers.
A study [11] estimates that NMVOC emissions from geothermal drilling sum up to nearly 30 kg/a.





Emission Factors

A research project done by the IER Stuttgart and Oekopol [11] dealing with plant specific emission data led to changes in emission factors, especially with NMVOC, SO2 and NOx.

non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)

Total NMVOC emissions from gasoline distribution come primarily from fugitive emissions released during transfer (filling/unloading) and from losses from tanks (tank breathing losses). The decrease in fugitive emissions is the result of implementation of the Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (TA-Luft 2002) and of the 20th and 21st Ordinance on the Execution of the Federal Immission Control Act (20. and 21. BImSchV), involving introduction of vapour recovery systems. It is also the result of reduced petrol consumption.
About 13 million m³ of petrol fuels are transported annually in Germany via railway tank cars. Transfer/handling (filling/unloading) and tank losses result in emissions of only 1,260 t NMVOC and of 140 t CH4 (total of 1,400 t VOC) per year [1].
The emissions situation points to the high technical standards that have been attained in railway tank cars and pertinent handling facilities.
Emissions can occur in cleaning of tanks. Work is currently underway to take cleaning of railway tank cars into account. The residual amounts remaining in railway tank cars' tanks after the tanks have been emptied – normally, between 0 and 30 litres (up to several hundred litres in exceptional cases) – are not normally able to evaporate completely. They thus produce emissions when the insides of tanks are cleaned. Each year, some 2,500 cleaning operations are carried out on railway tank cars that transport petrol. The emissions released via exhaust venting when the insides of railway tank cars are cleaned amount to no more than 0.04 kt/a VOC. More thorough emissions collection upon opening of manholes of railway tank cars, along with more thorough treatment of exhaust from cleaning of tanks' interiors, could further reduce VOC emissions. Exhaust cleansing is assumed to be carried out via one-stage active-charcoal adsorption. For an initial load of 1 kg/m³, exhaust concentration levels can be reduced by 99.5 %, to less than 5 g/m³. As a result, the remaining emissions amount to only 1.1 t. This is equivalent to a reduction of about 97 % from the determined level of 36.5 t/a (without adsorption).
Currently, the inventory includes emissions from cleaning of railway tank cars. For emissions calculation, an empty tank with a saturated atmosphere is assumed to contain about 1 kg/m³ of VOC. When the tank's manhole is opened, about 14.6 m³ are released from the tank. The emissions for 2,500 such instances of cleaning processes amount to 36.5 t/a.

Germany uses country specific emission factors for calculating the inventory. Following table shows the main drivers:

driver origin of the factor emission factor (2015) allocation of the emission
exploratory wells expert estimation 0,576 t/No 1.B.2.a.i
crude oil production expert estimation 0,02 kg/m³ 1.B.2.a.ii
Transports of domestically produced crude oil expert estimation 0,11 kg/t 1.B.2.a.iii
Transports of imported crude oil expert estimation 0,055 kg/t 1.B.2.a.iii
Transports of crude oil via inland-waterway tankers expert estimation 0,29 kg/t 1.B.2.a.iii
Storage of liquid petroleum products in tank-storage facilities outside of refineries expert estimation 100 g/m³ 1.B.2.a.iv
Storage of gaseous petroleum products in tank-storage facilities outside of refineries expert estimation 500 g/m³ 1.B.2.a.iv
storage of crude oil at refinieries expert estimation 0,144 kg/t 1.B.2.a.iv
Processing of crude oil in refineries expert estimation 0,025 kg/t 1.B.2.a.iv
Drip losses in refueling at petrol stations expert estimation 0,1 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
Transfers of diesel from road tankers to petrol stations expert estimation 0,003 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
Transfers of diesel from petrol station tanks to vehicle tanks expert estimation 0,003 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
Drip losses of jet fuel in refueling at petrol stations expert estimation 0 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
Transfers of jet fuel from road tankers to petrol stations expert estimation 0,055 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
distribution of jet fuel expert estimation 0,018 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
Drip losses in refueling at transfer stations expert estimation 1,1 g/t 1.B.2.a.v
distribution of light heating oil expert estimation 11,6 g/t 1.B.2.a.v
Cleaning of transport vehicles expert estimation 1,3 g/t 1.B.2.a.v
transport of mineral oil via inland-waterway tankers expert estimation 0,0133 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
transport of mineral oil products via inland-waterway tankers expert estimation 0,025 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
Drip losses in refueling at petrol stations expert estimation 0,117 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
Transfers from petrol station tanks to vehicle tanks expert estimation 1,4 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
Transfers from road tankers to petrol stations expert estimation 1,4 kg/t 1.B.2.a.v
production of natural gas expert estimation 0,01 g/m³ 1.b.2.b.ii
processing of sour gas expert estimation 0,01 g/m³ 1.b.2.b.iii
Flaring emissions at refineries: normal flaring operations expert estimation 2,4 g/m³ 1.b.2.c
Flaring emissions at refineries: disruptions of flaring operations expert estimation 2,3 g/t 1.b.2.c



sulphur dioxide (SO2)

The natural gas drawn from Germany's Zechstein geological formation contains hydrogen sulphide. In its original state, the gas, known as "acid gas", has to be subjected to special treatment. Such gas is transported via separate, specially protected pipelines (due the hazardousness of hydrogen sulphide) to central processing plants that wash out its hydrogen sulphide via chemical and physical processes. The natural gas that leaves these processing plants is ready for use. The hydrogen sulphide is converted into elementary sulphur and is used primarily by the chemical industry, as a basic raw material. Sulphur production from natural gas amounts to about 1 million tonnes per year in Germany [5].

Germany uses following emission factors for calculating the inventory:

driver origin of the factor emission factor (2015) allocation of the emission
desulphurisation of cude oil expert estimation 0,439 g/t 1.B.2.a.iv
Flaring emissions related to gas production expert estimation 8,885 g/m³ 1.b.2.c
Flaring emissions related to oil production expert estimation 0,01 kg/t 1.b.2.c
processing of sour gas expert estimation 0,14 g/m³ 1.b.2.b.iii
Flaring emissions at refineries: normal flaring operations expert estimation 7,27 g/m³ 1.b.2.c
Flaring emissions at refineries: disruptions of flaring operations expert estimation 0,015 kg/t 1.b.2.c



nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

Germany uses following emission factors for calculating the inventory:

driver origin of the factor emission factor (2015) allocation of the emission
Flaring emissions related to gas production expert estimation 1,27 g/m³ 1.b.2.c
Flaring emissions related to oil production expert estimation 0,008 kg/t 1.b.2.c
processing of sour gas expert estimation 0,011 g/m³ 1.b.2.b.iii
Flaring emissions at refineries: normal flaring operations expert estimation 0,038 g/m³ 1.b.2.c
Flaring emissions at refineries: disruptions of flaring operations expert estimation 3,49 g/t 1.b.2.c



carbon monoxide (CO)

Germany uses following emission factors for calculating the inventory:

driver origin of the factor emission factor (2015) allocation of the emission
Processing of crude oil in refineries expert estimation 0,598 g/t 1.B.2.a.iv
processing of sour gas expert estimation 0,043 g/m³ 1.b.2.b.iii
Flaring emissions related to gas production expert estimation 0,73 g/m³ 1.b.2.c
Flaring emissions related to oil production expert estimation 0,07 g/t 1.b.2.c
Flaring emissions at refineries: normal flaring operations expert estimation 0,33 g/m³ 1.b.2.c
Flaring emissions at refineries: disruptions of flaring operations expert estimation 4,16 g/t 1.b.2.c




Trends in Emissions

Carbonmonoxide.jpg

Carbon monoxide

Source: 1.B.2.a, 1.B.2.b and 1.B.2.c
Key Category: no
Trend: -98.0% since 1990 down_green.png

Flaring in oil refineries the main source for carbon monoxide emission in category 1.B.2. In the early 1990s, emissions from distribution of town gas were also taken into account in calculations. In 1990, the town-gas distribution network accounted for a total of 16 % of the entire gas network. Of that share, 15 % consisted of grey cast iron lines and 84 % consisted of steel and ductile cast iron lines. Since 1997 no town gas has been distributed in Germany's gas mains. Town-gas was the only known source of CO emissions in category 1.B.2.b.
Sulphur dioxide

Source: 1.B.2.a, 1.B.2.b and 1.B.2.c
Key Category: no
Trend: -82.7% since 1990 down_green.png

One main driver of shrinking SO2 emission is the decreasing amount of flared natural gas. The shrinking emissions are also attributed to the declining emissions from desulphurisation, that are a result of the implementation of modern technology.
Sulfurdioxide.jpg
Nitrogendioxide.jpg

Nitrogen dioxide

Source: 1.B.2.a, 1.B.2.b and 1.B.2.c
Key Category: no
Trend: -95.2 % since 1990 down_green.png

Flaring in oil refineries is the main source for nitrogen dioxide emission in category 1.B.2. The shrinking emissions are mainly attributed to the implementation of modern technology, especially on flares.
Non-methane volatile organic compounds

Source: 1.B.2.a, 1.B.2.b and 1.B.2.c
Key Category: yes (by level and trend)
Trend: -66.8% since 1990 down_green.png

The main sources of NMVOC emissions from total petrol distribution (1.B.2.a.v) were fugitive emissions from handling and transfer (filling/unloading) and container losses (tank breathing). These emissions have decreased by round about 65 % since 1990. The decrease in fugitive emissions during this period is the result of implementation of the Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (TA-Luft 2002) and of the 20th and 21st Ordinance on the Execution of the Federal Immission Control Act (20. and 21. BImSchV), involving introduction of vapour recovery systems. It is also the result of reduced petrol consumption. Currently, about 13 million m³ of petrol fuels are transported in Germany via railway tank cars. This transport volume entails a maximum of 300.000 handling processes (loading and unloading). Some 5.000 to 6.000 railway tank cars for transport of petrol are in service. Transfer/handling (filling/unloading) and tank losses result in emissions of only 1,4 kt VOC per year. The emissions situation points to the high technical standards that have been attained in railway tank cars and pertinent handling facilities. On the whole, oil consumption is expected to stagnate or decrease. As a result, numbers of oil storage facilities can be expected to decrease as well.

NMVOC.jpg

References

For greenhouse gases please refer to the National Inventory Report.

Bibliography
1. Dr. R. Joas; A. Potrykus; R. Schott; S. Wenzel: "VOC-Minderungspotenzial beim Transport und Umschlag von Mineralölprodukten mittels Kesselwagen", FKZ 202 44 372, UBA-Texte 12/2004, Dessau. Click here
2. EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook; chapter "Venting and flaring" published 2009 click here, (last pageview: Dec 2012)
3. UBA research project No. 205 42 110: "Environmental effects of geothermal electricity production; analysis and assessment of the small-scale and large-scale environmental effects of geothermal electricity production", Chapter A.2.1.5
4. Report of the Association of Oil and Gas Producing (WEG): "Entstehung-Suche-Förderung", Hannover, 34 S. Click here (last pageview Oct 2010)
5. Report of the Association of Oil and Gas Producing (WEG): "Schwefelgewinnung im Inland" Click here (last pageview Oct 2010)
6. Annual report of the Association of the German Petroeum Industry (MWV): „Mineralölzahlen 2009“ Click here, (last pageview Oct 2010)
7. Annual report of the Association of Oil and Gas Producing (WEG) "Jahresbericht 2009: Zahlen und Fakten". Hannover. Click here (last pageview Oct 2010)
8. UBA research project No. 360 16 012, Müller-BBM:"Inventarverbesserung 2008; Verbesserung und Ergänzung der aktuellen Inventardaten, IPCC-Kategorie (1996) 1.B.2 Diffuse Emissionen aus Erdöl und Erdgas"; (2010)
9. UBA research project No. 3707 42 103/ 01, Müller-BBM: "Aufbereitung von Daten der Emissionserklärungen gemäß 11. BImSchV aus dem Jahre 2004 für die Verwendung bei der UNFCCC- und UNECE-Berichterstattung"; Click here
10. National Energy Balance, calculated by the Working Group on Energy Balances (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen, AGEB) Click here (last pageview Dec 2011)
11. UBA research project No. 360 16 033, University of Stuttgart and Oekopol: "Ermittlung von Emissionsfaktoren von Aktivitätsraten in IPCC-Kategorie 1.B.2.a.i-vi; Diffuse Emissionen aus Mineralöl und Mineralölprodukten" (2013) (not available online);
12. Federal Statistical Office, Fachserie 8, Reihe 4, Table 2.1; data for the period prior to 2001 are estimates of the Federal Environment Agency (UBA);
13. BDEW - German Association of Energy and Water Industries (Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft - BDEW): Click here;
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