1.A.5.b - Other, Mobile (including Military)

Last updated on 24 Jan 2017 13:48 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.5.b - Other, Mobile (including Military) emissions from landbased, air- and waterborne military vehicles are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.5.b Other, Mobile (including Military) see sub-category details no key category
1.A.5.b i Other: Military - Mobile Combustion: Land-based T1, T2 NS CS, D -
1.A.5.b ii Other: Military - Mobile Combustion: Military Aviation T1, T2 NS CS, D -
1.A.5.b iii Other: Military - Mobile Combustion: Military Navigation T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, D, M -

For further information on sub-sector specific consumption data, emission factors and emissions as well as further information on emission trends, recalculations and planned improvements, please follow the links above.

Method

Activity data

Basically, all fuel deliveries to the military are included in the primary fuel delivery data provided by the National Energy Balances (NEB) (AGEB, 2016) [1].
As the NEB does not provide specific data for military use, the following additional sources are used:

Military land-based vehicles and aviation:

For the years as of 1995, the official mineral-oil data of the Federal Republic of Germany (Amtliche Mineralöldaten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), prepared by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA), are used (BAFA, 2016) [2]. Provided in units of [1000 t], these amounts have to be converted into [TJ] on the basis of the relevant net calorific values given by [1].

As the official mineral-oil data does not distinguish into fossil and biofuels but does provide amounts for inland deliveries of total diesel and gasoline fuels, no data on the consumption of biodiesel and bioethanol is available directly at the moment. Therefore, activity data for biofuels used in military vehicles are calculated by applying Germany's official annual biofuel shares to the named total deliveries (see also: info on EF).

As there is no consistent NEB data availabe for aviation gasoline, delivery data from [2] is used.

Military navigation:

Primarilly, fuel deliveries to military navigation is included in the NEB data provided in NEB lines 6: 'International Deep-Sea Bunkers' and 64: 'Coastal and inland navigation' but cannot be derived directly.
Therefore, starting with this submission, fuel use in military navigation is estimated within a specific model used for estimating emissions from German maritime activities (BSH, 2015) [3].

Table 1: Sources for consumption data in 1.A.5.b
Mode of Military Transport Specific AD included in: Sources for specific data Relevant years
Military Ground Vehicles and Aircraft NEB line 67 - 'Commerce, Trade, Services and other Consumers' Special evaluation 1990-1994 carried out by AGEB 1990 - 1994
Official oil data, table 7j, column: 'An das Militär', (BAFA, 2016) [2] as of 1995
Military Navigation NEB lines 6 - 'International Deep-Sea Bunkers' and 64 - 'Coastal and Inland Navigation' AD estimated within (BSH, 2015) [3] as of 1990
Table 2: Annual over-all fuel consumption in military vehicles and mobile equipment, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Oil 16,020 8,666 1,927 2,462 2,282 1,520 1,401 3,785 2,263 2,201 1,569 1,361 1,344 957 1,293 987 1,023 813
Gasoline 21,508 9,800 7,477 7,880 7,957 6,797 5,783 6,857 6,128 4,789 4,955 4,907 4,862 4,695 4,175 4,092 3,695 3,438
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 83 66 98 77 94 87 63 84 57 60 45
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 47 88 65 95 140 188 192 185 175 161 149
Jet Kerosene 38,385 16,143 9,862 3,197 4,501 7,029 5,280 2,200 2,441 2,554 3,597 4,396 3,286 4,114 1,171 2,049 3,060 3,726
Aviation Gasoline 15 6 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Heavy Fuel Oil NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
TOTAL 75,928 34,615 19,267 13,540 14,740 15,346 12,483 12,971 10,988 9,722 10,293 10,898 9,767 10,022 6,908 7,361 7,999 8,171

As the "consumption data" provided here originally represents fuel delivery data, some trends in "annual consumption" are influenced by stock-keeping activities.
Here, a clear impact of storage effects can be observed for avgas, where a significantly high amount of 15 TJ was purchased in 2007 followed by zero or very small deliveries.

In addition, based upon the information available to the inventory compilers, no heavy fuel oil is used in national military navigation.

Table 3: Further break-down of annual military fuel consumption, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
used in military ground transport
Diesel Oil 15,037 8,001 1,364 1,946 1,785 1,072 971 3,375 1,879 1,835 1,208 1,011 998 627 980 686 693 587
Gasoline 21,508 9,800 7,477 7,880 7,957 6,797 5,783 6,857 6,128 4,789 4,955 4,907 4,862 4,695 4,175 4,092 3,695 3,438
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO NO NO 8 74 55 82 60 70 65 41 64 40 42 32
Bioethanol NO NO NO NO NO NO 6 47 88 65 95 140 188 192 185 175 161 149
used in military aviation
Jet Kerosene 38,385 16,143 9,862 3,197 4,501 7,029 5,280 2,200 2,441 2,554 3,597 4,396 3,286 4,114 1,171 2,049 3,060 3,726
Aviation Gasoline 15 6 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
used in military navigation
Diesel Oil 983 665 563 516 497 449 431 410 383 366 360 349 347 330 313 302 330 226

Emission factors

For further information on sub-sector specific emission factors, please follow the links above.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.5.b is no key category.

Nonetheless, this NFR category shows interesting trends for emissions of Lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline (until 1997) and aviation gasoline:

Until 1997, lead emissions were dominated by the combustion of leaded gasoline in military ground-based vehicles. Therefore, the over-all trend for lead emissions from military vehicles and aircraft is driven mostly by the abolition of leaded gasoline in 1997. Towards this date, the amount of leaded gasoline decreased significantly. After 1997, the only source for lead from mobile fuel combustion is avgas used in military aircraft.
As for avgas, the trend of consumption is more or less drecreasing steadily until 2005 but then shows a strong increase for 2006 and '07 (!), followed by no or very small deliveries. As mentioned above, there are no real consumption data available: AD is based on fuel deliveries to the military only. Thus, especially the trends for the use of aviation gasoline and the resulting emissions show this siginificant jumps in 2006 and 07. The party is aware of this issue and will try to solve it as soon as data allows. (see also: FAQ)

The trend for TSP emissions reflects the impact of leaded gasoline at least for 1990 to 1997. For all other years, particulate matter emissions simply follow the trend in over-all fuel consumption.

Regarding sulphur dioxide, emssions not only reflect the trend of fuel consumption but also the impact of fuel-sulphur legislation.

For all other reported pollutants, due to the application of tier1 emission factors, emission trends reported for this sub-category only reflect the trend in fuel deliveries.

Recalculations

Basically, all recalculations result from the implementation of military navigation which was not taken into account before.

Activity data: Here, fuels (diesel oil and biodiesel) used for military navigation have been revised slightly within the undelying BSH model.

Table 4: Revised over-all activity data, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
1.A.5.b TOTAL
Submission 2017 75,928 34,615 19,267 13,540 14,740 15,346 12,483 12,971 10,988 9,722 10,293 10,898 9,767 10,022 6,908 7,361 7,999
Submission 2016 75,928 34,615 19,267 13,540 14,740 15,346 12,483 12,971 10,988 9,722 10,293 10,898 9,767 10,022 6,908 7,361 7,999
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.01 -0.01 0.01
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Diesel Oil
Submission 2017 16,020 8,666 1,927 2,462 2,282 1,520 1,401 3,785 2,263 2,201 1,569 1,361 1,344 957 1,293 987 1,023
Submission 2016 16,020 8,666 1,927 2,462 2,282 1,520 1,401 3,785 2,263 2,201 1,569 1,361 1,344 957 1,293 987 1,024
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.01 0.00 -0.28
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.03%
Biodiesel
Submission 2017 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 83 66 98 77 94 87 63 84 57 60
Submission 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 83 66 98 77 94 87 63 84 57 60
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.28
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.47%
Gasoline
Submission 2017 21,508 9,800 7,477 7,880 7,957 6,797 5,783 6,857 6,128 4,789 4,955 4,907 4,862 4,695 4,175 4,092 3,695
Submission 2016 21,508 9,800 7,477 7,880 7,957 6,797 5,783 6,857 6,128 4,789 4,955 4,907 4,862 4,695 4,175 4,092 3,695
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Bio-Ethanol
Submission 2017 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 47 88 65 95 140 188 192 185 175 161
Submission 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 47 88 65 95 140 188 192 185 175 161
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Jet Kerosene
Submission 2017 38,385 16,143 9,862 3,197 4,501 7,029 5,280 2,200 2,441 2,554 3,597 4,396 3,286 4,114 1,171 2,049 3,060
Submission 2016 38,385 16,143 9,862 3,197 4,501 7,029 5,280 2,200 2,441 2,554 3,597 4,396 3,286 4,114 1,171 2,049 3,060
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Avgas
Submission 2017 15.23 6.35 1.09 0.61 0.17 0.57 0.35 0.26 2.48 14.84 0.00 0.04 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Submission 2016 15.23 6.35 1.09 0.61 0.17 0.57 0.35 0.26 2.48 14.84 0.00 0.04 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

Emission Factors

Table 5: Newly implemented EF(BC)
Diesel Fuels* Avgas Kerosene
Submission 2017 19.9 0.07 5.76
Submission 2016 NE NE NE

* annual value for 2014

Furthermore, based on the implementation of BC emissions in the inventory, the ratio of PM2.5 : PM10 : TSP for marine diesel fuels were revised based on information from [5]:

Table 6: Revised EF* for PM10 and TSP from diesel fuels, in kg/TJ
PM2.5 PM10 TSP
Submission 2017 64.3 68.8 68.8
Submission 2016 64.3 64.3 64.3
absolute change 0.00 4.5 4.5
relative change 0.00% 7.00% 7.00%

* annual values for 2014

In addition, for completeness reasons, EF for PM2.5 and PM10 from avgas have been adopted from 1.A.3.a ii (i), also resulting in a revision of the corresponding EF(TSP).
Table 7: New and revised tier1 EF(PM) for avgas used in military aviation, in kg/TJ
PM2.5 PM10 TSP
Submission 2017 0.46 0.46 15.63
Submission 2016 NE NE 15.17
absolute change 0.46
relative change 3.03%

As the revised emission estimates resulting from these revisions cannot be displayed here in detail please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations for information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [4]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

For further information on sub-sector specific planned improvements, please follow the links above.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2016: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2014.html, Köln & Berlin, 2016.
2. BAFA, 2016: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, Eschborn, 2016.
3. BSH, 2015
4. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
5. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016
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