1.A.5.b i - Emissions from Military Ground Vehicles

Last updated on 24 Jan 2017 13:04 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.5.b i - Other, Mobile (including Military) emissions from military ground-vehicles are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.5.b i Other: Military - Mobile Combustion: Land-based T1, T2 NS CS, D see superordinate chapter

Method

Activity data

Basically, all fuel consumption in military vehicles is included in the primary acitivity data provided by the National Energy Balances (NEB) (AGEB, 2016).

As the NEB does not provide specific data for military use, the following additional sources are used:

For the years as of 1995, the official mineral-oil data of the Federal Republic of Germany (Amtliche Mineralöldaten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), prepared by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA), are used (BAFA, 2016) [1]. Provided in units of [1000 t], these amounts have to be converted into [TJ] on the basis of the relevant net calorific values given by [2].

As the official mineral-oil data does not distinguish into fossil and biofuels but does provide amounts for inland deliveries of total diesel and gasoline fuels, no data on the consumption of biodiesel and bioethanol is available directly at the moment. Therefore, activity data for biofuels used in military vehicles are calculated by applying Germany's official annual biofuel shares to the named total deliveries (see also: info on EF).

Table 1: Annual fuel deliveries to the military for ground-vehicles and machinery, in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Oil 15,037 8,001 1,364 1,946 1,785 1,072 971 3,375 1,879 1,835 1,208 1,011 998 627 980 686 693 587
Gasoline 21,508 9,800 7,477 7,880 7,957 6,797 5,783 6,857 6,128 4,789 4,955 4,907 4,862 4,695 4,175 4,092 3,695 3,438
Biodiesel NA NA NA NA NA NA 8 74 55 82 60 70 65 41 64 40 42 32
Bioethanol NA NA NA NA NA NA 6 47 88 65 95 140 188 192 185 175 161 149
TOTAL 36,545 17,801 8,841 9,826 9,742 7,868 6,768 10,353 8,151 6,771 6,318 6,128 6,112 5,556 5,404 4,993 4,591 4,206

Emission factors

Table 2: (I)EFs used for 2015 emission estimates1
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM BC Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
[kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g I-Teq] [mg/TJ]
Diesel fuels 4.002 2742 1,3602 0.373 3502 1002, 4 NE 1.215 0.236 0.125 0.0025 1.166 39.66 1.636 0.236 23.3 6986 1,1646 8005 1845 2,8477 1.628 NE NE
Gasoline fuels 4.002 3732 7252 0.403 4,0102 2.033, 4 NE 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.156 39.06 1.616 0.236 23.0 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 2.768 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 tier1 value from [3]
3 annual value from [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 default from [4], Chapter: 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles
6 tier1 default from [4], Chapter: 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road
7 sum of tier1 default value applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 value derived from [5]

Discussion of emission trends

This sub-category is not considered separately in the key category analysis.

Due to the application of very several tier1 emission factors, most emission trends reported for this sub-category only reflect the trend in fuel deliveries.
Therefore, the fuel-consumption dependend trends in emission estimates are only influenced by the annual fuel mix.

Here, for sulphur dioxide, this consumption-based falling trend is intensified by the impact of fuel-sulphur legislation.

Over-all particulate matter emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption.
Here, until 1997, the emission values reported for totals suspended particles (TSP) are slightly higher than those reported for PM2.5 and PM10 due to the additional TSP emissions from leaded gasoline that was banned in 1997.

Recalculations

Activity Data

Based on the revised NCV for fossil diesel for 2014, the corresponding diesel oil consumption in TJ had to be revised accordingly.
As, in parallel, the over-all inland deliveries in TJ remained unaltered, the amount deduced from diesel oil was re-allocated to biodiesel.

In contrast to diesel fuels, the amounts of gasoline and bioethanol remain unchanged.

Table 3: Revised 2014 consumption data for diesel oil and biodiesel, in TJ
1.A.5.b i TOTAL thereof: Diesel Oil thereof: Biodiesel
Submission 2017 4,590.56 693.11 42.03
Submission 2016 4,590.55 693.39 41.74
absolute change 0.01 -0.28 0.28
relative change 0.0002% -0.04% 0.68%

Emission Factors

All applied emission factors remain unrevised.

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

Given the limited quality of the emission factors applied, the inventory compiler will check a possible revision at least for the main pollutants.
Besides this, justifiable emission factors for Black Carbon will be compiled for the next annual submission.


Bibliography
1. BAFA, 2016: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, Eschborn, 2016.
2. AGEB, 2016b: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Daten - Sondertabellen - Heizwerte der Energieträger und Faktoren für die Umrechnung von spezifischen Mengeneinheiten in Wärmeinheiten (2000-2014); URL: URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2014.html, Köln & Berlin, 2016.
3. ifeu, 2016b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 360 16 018, Heidelberg, 2016.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008, URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License