1.A.4.c ii (b) - Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery: Forestry

Last updated on 19 Dec 2016 10:24 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii (b) fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from off-road vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry are reported.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.4.c ii (b) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Agriculture T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M see 1.A.4.c ii

Method

Activity data

Primary activity data (PAD) are taken from National Energy Balances (NEBs) line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2016) [((bicite 1))].

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2016) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4. ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2016b) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 1: Annual contribution of forestry vehicles and mobile machinery to the primary fuel delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel fuels
2.38% 1.34% 2.05% 1.57% 1.76% 2.18% 2.43% 2.66% 2.87% 3.61% 2.62% 2.33% 2.67% 2.64% 2.53% 2.56% 2.58% 2.56%
Gasoline fuels
68.5% 40.3% 44.9% 36.6% 37.1% 39.9% 40.7% 41.6% 41.6% 47.4% 38.0% 33.9% 36.0% 34.3% 33.5% 33.3% 33.2% 32.8%

1 2-stroke only; no 4-stroke gasoline vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry

Table 2: Annual mobile fuel consumption in forestry, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Oil 2,666 1,311 1,949 1,434 1,578 1,930 2,086 2,180 2,380 3,000 2,215 2,086 2,359 2,393 2,255 2,373 2,498 2,627
Gasoline 3,093 3,004 3,325 2,695 2,750 2,955 3,018 3,036 3,064 3,487 2,759 1,509 1,563 1,354 396 388 414 396
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 48 69 134 109 144 154 158 148 138 152 144
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 21 44 47 53 43 60 55 18 17 18 17
TOTAL 5,759 4,315 5,274 4,129 4,328 4,884 5,125 5,284 5,557 6,667 5,136 3,782 4,137 3,959 2,817 2,916 3,082 3,185

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
For all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annually changing values computed within TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2016b) [3] are used, representing the development of mitigation technologies and th effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs* and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4]. (* For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additonal emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].)

The tier1 EF apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [5] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil and gasoline are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively.

Table 4: (I)EFs used for 2015 emission estimates
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM BC Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
[kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g I-Teq] [mg/TJ]
Diesel fuels 0.182 31.22 3782 0.3723 2492 22.92,4 16.0 1.214 0.235 0.124 0.0024 1.165 39.65 1.635 0.235 23.35 6985 1,1645 8004 1844 2,8477 1.628 NE NE
Gasoline fuels 0.092 exh.: 2,7172 evap.: 5.112 55.32 0.3673 15,6172 82.72,4 4.1 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.156 39.06 1.616 0.236 22.96 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 57.58 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 annual country-specific tier2 values from [3]
3 country-specific tier1 values from [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
tier1 defaults from [4], chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles
6 tier1 defaults from [4], chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road
7 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 values derived from [5]

Recalculations

Table: Revised annual contribution of forestry vehicles and mobile machinery to the primary fuel deliveries data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Submission 2017 0.024 0.013 0.021 0.016 0.018 0.022 0.024 0.027 0.029 0.036 0.026 0.023 0.027 0.026 0.025 0.026 0.026
Submission 2016 0.024 0.013 0.020 0.015 0.017 0.021 0.024 0.026 0.028 0.035 0.026 0.023 0.026 0.026 0.025 0.025 0.025
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
relative change 0.54% 1.85% 1.92% 2.11% 2.19% 2.25% 2.17% 1.98% 1.97% 1.94% 2.14% 2.35% 2.66% 2.93% 2.85% 2.84% 2.97%
Table: Revised annual mobile fuel consumption in forestry, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Submission 2017 5,759 4,315 5,274 4,129 4,328 4,884 5,125 5,284 5,557 6,667 5,136 3,782 4,137 3,959 2,817 2,916 3,082
Submission 2016 5,745 4,291 5,236 4,098 4,293 4,841 5,079 5,240 5,509 6,607 5,086 3,729 4,070 3,885 2,749 2,845 2,938
absolute change 14 24 37 30 35 43 46 44 48 61 50 52 67 75 68 71 144
relative change 0.25% 0.56% 0.71% 0.73% 0.80% 0.89% 0.89% 0.84% 0.87% 0.91% 0.97% 1.39% 1.61% 1.89% 2.43% 2.45% 4.68%
Table: Newly implemented EF(BC)*, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel & Biodiesel 84.6 60.8 41.8 38.5 35.5 32.5 29.9 27.7 25.8 24.4 23.2 22.3 21.6 21.0 20.3 19.2 17.6 16.0
Gasoline & Bioethanol 5.1 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

* estimated from f-BC (diesel fuels: 0.55; gasoline fuels: 0.05) as provided in [4], chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road, note to Table 3-1: Tier 1 emission factors for off-road machinery


Bibliography
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