1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-Road Vehicles and Other Machinery

Last updated on 10 Mar 2017 10:46 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from off-road vehicles and machinery used in agriculture and forestry are reported seperately.

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NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.4.c ii Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-Road Vehicles and Other Machinery T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M NOx: L; PM2.5 & PM10 & BC: L/T
including mobile sources sub-categories
1.A.4.c ii (a) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Agriculture T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M -
1.A.4.c ii (b) Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery: Forestry T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M -

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2016) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2016) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and commercial/institutional used off-road vehicles (1.A.4.a ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2016b) [3] (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

To provide more specific information on mobile sources in agriculture and forestry, the inventory compiler further devides NFR sector 1.A.4.c ii into 1.A.4.c ii (i) - NRMM in agriculture in and 1.A.4.c ii (ii) - NRMM in forestry.

Table 2: Annual percentual contribution of NFR 1.A.4.c ii to the primary fuel delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Oil & Biodiesel
1.A.4.c ii (i) 48% 47% 47% 48% 48% 48% 49% 50% 49% 50% 50% 50% 51% 49% 51% 51% 50% 50%
1.A.4.c ii (ii) 2% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 3% 3% 4% 3% 2% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3%
Gasoline & Bioethanol
1.A.4.c ii (ii) 69% 40% 45% 37% 37% 40% 41% 42% 42% 47% 38% 34% 36% 34% 34% 33% 33% 33%

1 no gasoline used in agriculatural vehicles and mobile machinery
2 no 4-stroke gasoline vehicles and mobile machinery used in forestry

Table 3: Annual mobile fuel consumption in agriculture and forestry, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Oil 56,808 46,985 46,536 44,918 44,927 44,813 44,475 43,298 43,117 44,402 44,485 47,146 47,299 47,047 47,247 49,200 51,083 54,286
Gasoline 3,093 3,004 3,325 2,695 2,750 2,955 3,018 3,036 3,064 3,487 2,759 1,509 1,563 1,354 396 388 414 396
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 0 383 947 1,256 1,983 2,199 3,247 3,086 3,099 3,097 2,862 3,114 2,968
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 21 44 47 53 43 60 55 18 17 18 17
TOTAL 59,900 49,989 49,860 47,613 47,677 47,768 47,878 47,302 47,481 49,920 49,496 51,944 52,009 51,554 50,758 52,467 54,628 57,668

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4].

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [5] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil are applied to biodiesel, too.

Due to the separate reporting of mobile fuel combustion in agriculture and forestry as well as the differentiation into 2- and 4-stroke gasoline engines, a broad set of emission factors is applied here. For further information on the tier1 default EF as well as annual IEF modelled in TREMOD-MM please refer to the sub-chapters linked above.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.c ii is key source for emissions of NOx, BC, PM2.5 and PM10.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (Black Carbon, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Recalculations

Compared to the fundamental revision carried out with submission 2015, activity data and emission factors changed only slightly.

Activity data

As fuel consumption data is calculated from primary NEB data via annual sectoral shares from TREMOD MM [3], any revisions in these shares impacts the AD estimates.
The following table gives an overview of the changes in annual shares resulting from the routine revision of TREMOD MM.

Here, additional changes for the more recent years and especially for 2013 result from revisions in the primary fuel deliveries data as provided in the National Energy Balances.

Table: Revised annual contribution of sub-sectors 1.A.4.c ii (i) and 1.A.4.c ii (ii) to the over-all fuel data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
1.A.4.c ii (i) - diesel fuels
Submission 2017 0.484 0.467 0.469 0.475 0.482 0.484 0.494 0.502 0.492 0.498 0.499 0.503 0.508 0.492 0.505 0.505 0.502
Submission 2016 0.481 0.458 0.460 0.465 0.472 0.473 0.483 0.492 0.482 0.489 0.489 0.491 0.494 0.478 0.491 0.491 0.487
absolute change 0.003 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.015
relative change 0.54% 1.88% 1.96% 2.16% 2.24% 2.30% 2.21% 2.02% 2.01% 1.98% 2.19% 2.41% 2.73% 3.02% 2.93% 2.93% 3.06%
1.A.4.c ii (ii) - diesel fuels
Submission 2017 0.024 0.013 0.021 0.016 0.018 0.022 0.024 0.027 0.029 0.036 0.026 0.023 0.027 0.026 0.025 0.026 0.026
Submission 2016 0.024 0.013 0.020 0.015 0.017 0.021 0.024 0.026 0.028 0.035 0.026 0.023 0.026 0.026 0.025 0.025 0.025
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
relative change 0.54% 1.88% 1.96% 2.16% 2.24% 2.30% 2.21% 2.02% 2.01% 1.98% 2.19% 2.41% 2.73% 3.02% 2.93% 2.93% 3.06%

These changes in annual shares and in combination with the updated 2013 Energy Balance result in the following changes in sub-sectoral activity data:

Table 3: Revised activity data 1990-2014, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
diesel fuels
Submission 2017 56,808 46,985 46,536 44,918 44,927 44,813 44,858 44,245 44,373 46,386 46,685 50,393 50,385 50,145 50,344 52,062 54,196
Submission 2016 56,500 46,118 45,641 43,970 43,943 43,806 43,886 43,367 43,498 45,486 45,685 49,208 49,047 48,675 48,910 50,581 51,806
absolute change 307 867 895 948 984 1.007 972 878 875 900 1,000 1,185 1,338 1,471 1,435 1,480 2,390
relative change 0.54% 1.88% 1.96% 2.16% 2.24% 2.30% 2.21% 2.02% 2.01% 1.98% 2.19% 2.41% 2.73% 3.02% 2.93% 2.93% 4.61%
gasoline fuels
Submission 2017 3,093 3,004 3,325 2,695 2,750 2,955 3,021 3,057 3,108 3,534 2,812 1,552 1,624 1,409 414 405 432
Submission 2016 3,093 3,004 3,325 2,695 2,750 2,955 3,021 3,057 3,108 3,534 2,812 1,552 1,624 1,409 414 405 404
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 27
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 6.77%
1.A.4.c ii - total consumption
Submission 2017 59,900 49,989 49,860 47,613 47,677 47,768 47,878 47,302 47,481 49,920 49,496 51,944 52,009 51,554 50,758 52,467 54,628
Submission 2016 59,593 49,123 48,965 46,665 46,693 46,760 46,907 46,424 46,606 49,020 48,497 50,760 50,671 50,084 49,324 50,986 52,210
absolute change 307 867 895 948 984 1,007 972 878 875 900 1,000 1,185 1,338 1,471 1,435 1,480 2,418
relative change 0.52% 1.76% 1.83% 2.03% 2.11% 2.15% 2.07% 1.89% 1.88% 1.84% 2.06% 2.33% 2.64% 2.94% 2.91% 2.90% 4.63%

Emission factors

In addition, several EF modelled within TREMOD MM have been revised slightly, but are not displayed here in full detail.
In addition, for the 2-stroke gasoline machinery in the forestry sector, separate factors for NMVOC emissions from both fuel combustion and evaporation have been implemented, repalcing the aggragate values used so far.

Table: Newly implemented EF(BC)*, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel & Biodiesel
1.A.4.c ii (i) 129,7 114,9 100,5 97,6 94,4 91,1 87,8 84,6 81,3 78,5 75,9 66,6 63,9 61,1 58,6 55,6 52,4 49,2
1.A.4.c ii (ii) 84,6 60,8 41,8 38,5 35,5 32,5 29,9 27,7 25,8 24,4 23,2 22,3 21,6 21,0 20,3 19,2 17,6 16,0
Gasoline & Bioethanol
1.A.4.c ii (ii) 5,1 3,7 3,7 3,7 3,7 3,7 3,8 3,9 3,9 3,9 3,9 3,9 3,9 4,0 4,1 4,1 4,1 4,1

* estimated from f-BC (diesel fuels: 0.55; gasoline fuels: 0.05) as provided in [4], chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road, note to Table 3-1: Tier 1 emission factors for off-road machinery

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [6]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of TREMOD MM, no improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] and [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2016: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2013.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2015), Köln & Berlin, 2016.
2. BAFA, 2016: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (21.11.2016), Eschborn, 2016.
3. ifeu, 2016b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2016.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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