1.A.4.b ii - Residential: Household and Gardening: Mobile

Last updated on 25 Jan 2017 10:36 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.b ii - Residential: Mobile Sources in Households and Gardening fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from combustion engine driven devices such as motor saws and lawn mowers are being reported.

NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Category for (by 1)
1.A.4.b ii Residential: Household and Gardening: Mobile T1 NS, M CS, D no key category

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Lawnmower.PNG

Method

Activity data

Activity data are taken from annual fuel delieveries data provided in line 66: 'Households' of the National Energy Balances (NEB) for Germany (AGEB, 2016) [1].

Table 1: Sources for consumption data in 1.A.4.b ii
Relevant years Data Source
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: Households
since 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 66: Households

Here, given the rare statistics on sold machinery, these activity data is of limited quality only (no annual but cascaded trend).

As the NEB only provides primary activity data for total biomass used in 'households', but does not distinguish into specific biofuels, consumption data for bioethanol used in NFR 1.A.4.b ii are calculated by applying Germany's official annual shares of bioethanol blended to fossil gasoline.

Please note: Data on gasoline used in households as provided in the National Energy Balances represents a "residual item" following the allocation of the majority of this fuel to road and military vehicles.
Here, fuel sales to road vehicles might also include gasoline acquired on filling stations but used for household equipment.

Due to these reasons, activity data for gasoline consumption in households machinery and, hence, several emission estimates show no realistic trend but a stepwise development with significant jumps.

Table 2: Annual over-all fuel deliveries to residential mobile sources, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Gasoline 2,177 2,395 2,395 2,395 2,394 2,395 2,395 2,395 2,177 2,177 2,177 3,445 3,379 4,069 3,995 3,720 3,946 3,759
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 16 31 29 42 98 131 167 177 159 172 163
TOTAL 2,177 2,395 2,395 2,395 2,394 2,395 2,398 2,411 2,208 2,206 2,219 3,543 3,510 4,236 4,172 3,879 4,118 3,922

These primary activity data can be distributed onto 2- and 4-stroke engines used in households via annual shares from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2016b). [3]

Table 3: Annual shares of 2- and 4-stroke engines
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
2-stroke 72% 50% 34% 33% 33% 33% 32% 31% 30% 29% 29% 28% 27% 27% 26% 25% 25% 24%
4-stroke 28% 50% 66% 67% 67% 67% 68% 69% 70% 71% 71% 72% 73% 73% 74% 75% 75% 76%
TOTAL 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Table 4: Resulting estimates for fuel consumption in 2- and 4-stroke engines, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
2-stroke engines
Gasoline 1,563 1,204 803 799 795 789 772 749 660 641 622 954 920 1,084 1,019 923 968 913
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 10 9 12 27 36 44 45 40 42 40
4-stroke engines
Gasoline 614 1,191 1,592 1,596 1,599 1,606 1,623 1,646 1,517 1,536 1,555 2,491 2,459 2,985 2,976 2,797 2,978 2,846
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 11 22 21 30 71 95 122 132 120 129 123
TOTAL 2,177 2,395 2,395 2,395 2,394 2,395 2,395 2,411 2,208 2,206 2,219 3,543 3,510 4,236 4,172 3,879 4,118 3,922

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
For all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annually changing values computed within TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2015b) [3] are used, representing the development of mitigation technologies and th effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs* and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4]. (* For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additional emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].)

The tier1 EF apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [6] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for gasoline are applied to bioethanol, too.

Table 4: (I)EFs used for 2015 emission estimates1
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM BC Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
[kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g I-Teq] [mg/TJ]
2-stroke 0.092 2,9692 3382 572 0.373 15,5932 1124 5.69 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.146 39.06 1.616 0.236 23.06 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 57.58 NE NE
4-stroke 0.092 1,6332 7652 1322 0.373 29,2222 5.154 0.269 0.765 0.236 0.205 0.0075 1.146 39.06 1.616 0.236 23.06 9196 9196 905 2045 2,1317 57.58 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 annual country-specific tier2 values from [3]
3 country-specific tier1 values from [3]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 defaults from [4], chapter 1.A.3.b i-iv - Road transport: exhaust emissions: tier1 value for diesel vehicles
6 tier1 defaults from [4], chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road
7 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 values derived from [6]
9 estimated via a f-BC 0.05 as provided in [4], Chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road, note to Table 3-1: Tier 1 emission factors for off-road machinery

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.4.b ii is no key source.

Given the limited quality of gasoline-deliveries data from NEB line 66, the following emission trends are of limited significance only.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Here, as the EF(BC) are estimated via fractions provided in [4], black carbon emissions follow the corresponding emissions of PM2.5.

Recalculations

Activity data: The following table provides the revised over-all activity data. Here, in contrast to earlier submissions, the source-specific consumption data has been calculated via annual shares from [3] instead of continual shares, resulting in significantly lower fuel consumtion estimates for this sector.

Table 5: Revision of 2014 total inland fuel deliveries for household-related consumption
Submission 2017 4,118
Submission 2016 3,820
absolute change 297
relative change 7.78%

Emission factors: With all emission factors remaining unrevised, the only changes occur due to the newly implemented EF for BC emissions from 2- and 4-stroke gasoline engines.

Table : Newly implemented EF(BC)*, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
2-strokes 5.14 4.79 4.76 4.74 4.73 4.71 4.73 4.76 4.77 4.77 4.78 4.80 4.80 4.95 5.25 5.45 5.53 5.60
4-strokes 0.31 0.27 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.26

* estimated via a f-BC 0.05 as provided in [4], Chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road, note to Table 3-1: Tier 1 emission factors for off-road machinery

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!).

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned at the moment.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained in biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2016: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2013.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2015), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2016: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 21.10.2015), Eschborn.
3. ifeu, 2016b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2015.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2016
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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