1.A.3.d ii (a) - National Maritime Navigation

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Within 1.A.3.d ii (a) emissions from national maritime navigation are described in more detail.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.d ii (a) National Maritime Navigation T3 NS, M T1, T3, CS, D not included separately in key category analysis

Method

Activity data

Table 1: Annual over-all fuel consumption, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Oil 15,940 11,258 11,860 11,231 9,962 9,845 10,395 10,834 9,486 8,685 8,489 9,046 9,047 9,903 7,629
Biodiesel 0 0 0 35 79 104 169 195 238 205 202 215 192 202 156
Heavy Fuel Oil 11,723 8,041 8,577 8,069 7,172 7,004 7,425 7,797 6,733 6,114 5,961 6,410 6,376 6,174 6,255
1,A,3,d ii (a) TOTAL 27,662 19,299 20,436 19,335 17,214 16,953 17,989 18,825 16,457 15,004 14,652 15,670 15,615 16,279 14,040

Emission factors

The emission factors applied here, are derived from different sources and therefore are of very different quality.

For the main pollutants, country-specific implied values are used, that are based on tier3 EF included in the BSH model [1] which mainly relate on values from the EMEP/EEA guidebook 2016 [2]. These modelled IEFs take into account the ship specific information derived from AIS data as well as the mix of fuel-qualities applied depending on the type of ship and the current state of activity.

For heavy metals and PAHs, HCB and PCBs, tier1 defaults from [2] are used directly, whereas for PCDD/F values from a study carried out for UBA are applied. - Here, as the guidebook does not provide source-specific values for PAHs, respective values provided for diesel in railways and heavy duty road vehicles have been applied as a gap-filling proxy.

Regarding PCDD/F, a country-specific value for diesel oil from (Rentz et al., 2008) [3] has been applied.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2015 emission estimates1
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
[kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g I-Teq] [mg/TJ]
Diesel fuels 0.322 72.62 1,0552 52.22 1732 60.22 64.42 18.72,9 3.034 0.234 0.704 0.934 1.164 20.54 23.34 2.334 27.94 6985 1,1645 8016 1846 2,8477 938 1.864 8.854
Heavy Fuel Oil 0.332 158.42 1,2942 4992 1922 2702 2972 32.42,9 4.463 0.503 0.503 16.93 17.83 31.03 7933 5.203 29.73 7415 1,2355 8496 1956 3,0207 938 4.463 14.13

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 country-specific values from [1]
3 tier1 defaults from [2], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-2,
4 tier1 defaults from [2], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-1
5 tier1 defaults from [2], Chapter: 1.A.3.c Railways: Diesel, Table 3-1
6 tier1 defaults from [2], Chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport, Table 3-8: HDV, Diesel
7 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
8 tier1 values derived from [3]
9 EFs calculated from f-BCs as provided in [4]; Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii, Annex A, Conlcusion, Table A2: f-BC(HFO)= 0.12, f-BC(MGO)= 0.31

Discussion of emission trends

Sub-sector 1.A.3.d ii (a) is not considered separately within the key category analysis.

Basically, for all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in over-all fuel consumption:

For sulphur dioxide and particulate matter, emission trends not only follow the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-sulphur legislation:

Recalculations

As no revision occured to the BSH model, all fuel consumption estimates for domestic maritime navigation remain unaltered .

In addition, the only changes in the (implied) emission factors occur for PM10 and TSP. Here, the former assumption that EF(PM2.5) = EF(PM10) = EF(PMTSP) was adapted to [4], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii; Tables 3-1 and 3-2.

Table 4: Revision of the IEF for PM10 and TSP
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Submission 2017 434 392 218 174 174 174 131 65 65 61 61 62 64
Submission 2016 406 367 204 163 163 163 122 61 61 57 57 58 60
absolute change 28 26 14 11 11 11 9 4 4 4 4 4 4
relative change 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7%

Furthermore, as for all combustion sources, emission factors for Black Carbon (BC) have been applied for the first time based on the BC-fractions provided in [4]:

Table 6: Newly implemented EF(BC), 2015 values, in kg/TJ
Diesel Fuels Heavy Fuel Oil
Submission 2017 18.7 32.4
Submission 2016 NE NE

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

With the next annual submission a routine revision of the BSH model used for maritime navigation is scheduled.


Bibliography
1. BSH, 2015: Pflege und Aktualisierung des Modells zur Berechnung der Energieeinsätze und Emissionen des von deutschen Häfen ausgehenden Seeverkehrs, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Hamburg, 2015.
2. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
3. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
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