1.A.3.d i - International Maritime Navigation

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under category 1.A.3.d i - International Navigation the emissions from international navigation are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.d i International Navigation T1 - T3 NS, M CS, D, M not included in national totals

The source category includes international deep sea fishery and international marine transport. Emissions from fuel consumption for international transports of ocean-going ships are not reported as part of total national inventories.

Method

Activity data

Primary fuel delivery data (primary activity data, PAD) for international maritime navigation is included in line 6 - 'International Deep-Sea Bunkers' of the National Energy Balances (NEB) (AGEB, 2016) [1] together with respective data for IMO-registered ships used in national maritime transport (see 1.A.3.d ii (a)), fishing (see 1.A.4.c iii) and military navigation (see 1.A.5.b iii).

The AD applied for international maritime navigation therefore represents the remains of primary fuel delivery data from NEB line 6 minus the modelled consumption data estimated for non-IMO ships in 1.A.3.d ii (a), 1.A.4.c iii and 1.A.5.b iii:

(1)
\begin{align} AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d i} = PAD_\text{ NEB line 6} - AD_\text{ 1.A.3.d ii (a) - IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.4.c iii - IMO} - AD_\text{ 1.A.5.b iii - IMO} \end{align}
Table 1: Annual fuel consumption in [TJ]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Oil 12,748 12,919 13,664 11,993 15,817 17,524 13,105 14,412 16,662 15,370 12,594 12,414 13,589 38,996
Heavy Fuel Oil 68,484 56,323 60,984 78,182 78,257 96,625 96,017 85,865 86,934 86,687 81,171 71,364 69,100 49,892
NFR TOTAL 81,232 69,242 74,648 90,175 94,074 114,149 109,122 100,277 103,596 102,057 93,765 83,778 82,689 88,889

Consumption of heavy oil has been increasing since 1984 as a result of high petroleum prices, global increases in transports and increasing maritime use of diesel engines that can run on heavy oil. The emissions fluctuations that occurred in the navigation sector in 1992 and 1996 were caused by trade and oil crises.

Emission factors

For main pollutants and particulate matter, modelled emission factors are available from [2]. - Here, for SO2 and PM, annual values are available representing the impact of fuel sulphur legislation.

For most other pollutants, tier1 default values from (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] are applied. - Here, as the guidebook does not provide source-specific values for PAHs, respective values provided for diesel in railways and heavy duty road vehicles have been applied as a gap-filling proxy.

Regarding PCDD/F, a country-specific value for diesel oil from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] has been applied to heavy fuel oil, too.

Table 2: (I)EFs used for 2015 emission estimates
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
[kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g I-Teq] [mg/TJ]
Diesel fuels 0.321 63.71 1,0831 65.21 1431 60.21 64.41 64.41 18.78 3.036 0.233 0.703 0.933 1.163 20.53 233 2.333 27.93 6984 1,1644 8015 1845 2,8476 937 1.863 0.893
Heavy Fuel Oil 0.331 1581 1,3241 4961 1841 2701 2971 2971 32.48 4.462 0.502 0.502 16.92 17.82 31.02 7932 5.202 29.72 7414 1,2354 8945 1955 3,0206 937 3.452 14.12

1 country-specific values from [2]
2 tier1 defaults from [3], Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-2
3 tier1 defaults from [3], C1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-1
4 tier1 defaults from [3], Chapter: 1.A.3.c Railways: Diesel, Table 3-1
5 tier1 defaults from [3], Chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport, Table 3-8: HDV, Diesel
6 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
7 tier1 values derived from [4]
8 estimated from EF(PM) via f-BCs as provided in [3]: HFO: 0.12, MGO: 0.31

Trends of exhaust emissions from international navigation

NFR 1.A.3.d i is not considered in the key category analysis.

Emission trends for unregulated pollutants (such as NH3, NOx, NMVOC and CO, all HM and POPs) with only slight changes in the annual over-all IEFs applied, follow the trends in fuel consumption and the shares of diesel and heavy fuel oil:

On the other hand, the emission trends for SOx and PM, both depending on the fuel's sulphur content, follow not only the trends in fuel consumption but do also reflect fuel-sulphur legislation:

Recalculations

Acitivity data: Without any changes in the AD computed within the model used [2], only the 2014 inland deliveries data was revised due to an updated National Energy Balance 2014.

Table 3: Revised fuel consumption data 2013, in [TJ]
Diesel oil Heavy fuel oil
12,414 71,364
12,344 71,321
70 43
0.6% 0.1%

Emission Factors: For all main pollutants and carbon monoxide, the country specific values have been revised within [2].
In contrast, all tier1 default EF (HMs, POPs) remain unchanged.

Emissions: Emission estimates were revised for the entire time series (main pollutants: revised EF) or for 2013 only (HMs, POPs: updated AD 2013)

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Planned improvements

With the next CLRTAP submission, Black Carbon (BC) will be reported for all relevant sources. - Besides this, a routine maintenance and further development of the BSH model is planned.

FAQs


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2016: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2014.html, Köln & Berlin, 2016.
2. BSH, 2015: Pflege und Aktualisierung des Modells zur Berechnung der Energieeinsätze und Emissionen des von deutschen Häfen ausgehenden Seeverkehrs, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Hamburg, 2015.
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008; URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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