1.A.3.b iv - Road Transport: Mopeds & Motorcycles

Last updated on 14 Mar 2017 08:53 (cf. Authors)

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Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b iv - Road Transport: Mopeds & Motorcycles emissions from fuel combustion in motorised two-wheelers are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b iv Mopeds & Motorcycles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D CO, BC: L

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for mopeds and motorcycles is generated within the TREMOD model (ifeu, 2016a) [1].
The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of gasoline fuels consumed by motorized two-wheelers in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of mopeds and motorcycles, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Mopeds
Gasoline 4,940 3,433 3,142 3,157 3,162 3,262 3,379 3,281 3,299 3,369 3,275
Bioethanol 0 0 0 3 22 126 139 145 141 147 142
Subtotal 4,940 3,433 3,142 3,160 3,183 3,388 3,517 3,426 3,440 3,516 3,417
Motorcycles
Gasoline 17,110 13,195 16,042 17,041 16,990 14,097 14,629 14,552 15,242 15,927 15,487
Bioethanol 0 0 0 18 117 545 600 645 653 693 672
Subtotal 17,110 13,195 16,042 17,060 17,107 14,642 15,228 15,197 15,895 16,619 16,158
Motorized Two-Wheelers: Mopeds & Motorcycles
Gasoline 22,049 16,628 19,184 20,198 20,151 17,360 18,008 17,833 18,540 19,296 18,761
Bioethanol 0 0 0 22 138 671 738 790 795 839 814
NFR TOTAL 22,049 16,628 19,184 20,220 20,290 18,030 18,746 18,623 19,335 20,135 19,575

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.2) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within TREMOD [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.

Table 2: fuel-specific IEF for motorized two-wheelers, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
NH3 1.21 1.25 1.30 1.33 1.34 1.33 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34 1.34
NMVOC 2,414.65 1,636.19 1,456.11 1,322.39 1,301.30 1,315.43 1,287.19 1,252.45 1,200.28 1,163.45 1,121.13 1,074.86 1,037.60 994.55
NOx 182.52 197.83 185.76 175.38 171.43 178.75 172.76 167.43 162.94 159.41 154.90 150.94 147.62 146.06
SO2 15.11 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 12,126.45 12,427.14 11,871.87 10,595.17 10,062.32 9,816.52 9,436.24 9,036.44 8,692.76 8,352.22 7,997.82 7,668.18 7,350.23 7,045.05
PM2.5 67.87 63.65 42.70 39.88 39.57 41.14 39.54 37.94 36.06 35.02 33.77 32.56 31.60 30.14
PM10 67.87 63.65 42.70 39.88 39.57 41.14 39.54 37.94 36.06 35.02 33.77 32.56 31.60 30.14
TSP 70.98 64.47 42.70 39.88 39.57 41.14 39.54 37.94 36.06 35.02 33.77 32.56 31.60 30.14
BC 0.00 6.91 4.98 4.75 4.81 5.00 4.89 4.77 4.62 4.56 4.47 4.39 4.32 4.22

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2013a) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 2: Overview of applied EMEP/EEA defaults and other tier1 EF
As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn PCDD/F B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-c,d]P PAH 1-4
[g/TJ] [µg/km] [mg/TJ]
0.0069 0.2480 0.3675 0.9646 0.1998 0.2986 0.7625 0.0046 49.6750 0.0000027 192.91 215.88 156.17 234.25 799.21

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iv is key category for CO and Black Carbon.

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of NMVOC have decreased due to technical improvements.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) exhaust emissions from two-wheelers shows charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage.

Particulate Matter (PM)

Particle emissions result from the comusbtion of gasoline and bioethanol. Here, due to the assumption that nearly all TSP emitted is formed by particles in the PM2.5 range, similar estimates are provided for all three fractions. (Exception: Until 1997, additional TSP emissions from use of leaded gasoline are included.)

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2016, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2015. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 3: Revised fuel consumption data
2012 2013 2014
Mopeds: Gasoline
Submission 2017 3,281 3,299 3,369
Submission 2016 3,281 3,298 3,369
absolute change 0 1 0
relative change 0.01% 0.04% 0.00%
Mopeds: Bioethanol
Submission 2017 145.39 141.41 146.51
Submission 2016 145.38 141.36 146.51
absolute change 0.01 0.05 0.00
relative change 0.00% 0.03% 0.00%
Motorcycles: Gasoline
Submission 2017 14,552 15,242 15,927
Submission 2016 14,556 15,244 15,596
absolute change -4 -2 331
relative change -0.03% -0.02% 2.12%
Motorcycles: Bioethanol
Submission 2017 645 653 693
Submission 2016 645 653 678
absolute change 0 0 14
relative change -0.03% -0.01% 2.12%
Motorized Two-Wheelers: Gasoline
Submission 2017 17,833 18,540 19,296
Submission 2016 17,837 18,542 18,965
absolute change -4 -1 331
relative change -0.02% -0.01% 1.75%
Motorized Two-Wheelers: Bioethanol
Submission 2017 790 795 839
Submission 2016 790 795 825
absolute change -0.19 -0.04 14.39
relative change -0.02% 0.00% 1.75%

Emission factors

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.
In addition, all EMEP/EEA defaults (for HMs and PAHs) and other tier1 values (PCDD/F) remain unchanged.

Emission estimates

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the scheduled routine revision of TREMOD, Black Carbon (BC) will be reported for all relevant sources with the next annual submission.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2016a: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
2. INFRAS, 2014: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.2 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.2) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2014
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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