1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses

Last updated on 14 Mar 2017 09:13 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b iii - Road Transport: Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses emissions from fuel combustion in trucks, lorries, buses etc. are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles (incl. Buses) T1, T2, T3 NS, M CS, M, D NOx, PM2.5, PM10 & BC: L/T

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and lorries) and buses are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following tables provide an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by these vehicles in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of trucks and lorries, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
HDV: Trucks & Lorries
Diesel oil 412,472 573,298 675,947 520,828 540,671 542,327 564,680 581,980 561,809 593,208
Biodiesel 0 894 7,488 34,681 41,143 37,511 39,538 34,232 34,230 32,350
Trucks - TOTAL 412,472 574,193 683,436 555,509 581,815 579,838 604,218 616,212 596,039 625,558
HDV: Buses
Diesel oil 62,591 62,821 63,016 46,027 44,578 43,230 47,068 48,138 45,238 46,979
Biodiesel 0 98 698 3,065 3,392 2,990 3,296 2,831 2,756 2,562
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 782 1,304 1,202 1,173 1,030 1,051 946
Buses - TOTAL 62,591 63,529 64,128 49,874 49,274 47,422 51,537 51,999 49,046 50,487
HDV: Trucks & Lorries + Buses
Diesel oil 475,063 636,119 738,963 566,855 585,249 585,557 611,748 630,118 607,047 640,186
Biodiesel 0 992 8,187 37,746 44,536 40,501 42,834 37,064 36,987 34,912
Petroleum 0 610 414 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 782 1,304 1,202 1,173 1,030 1,051 946
NFR TOTAL 475,063 637,721 747,564 605,383 631,089 627,260 655,754 668,211 645,085 676,045
LKW.PNG
bus.PNG

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.2) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: average IEF for all diesel oil used in heavy duty vehicles, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
NH3 0.30 0.30 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31
NMVOC 69.50 59.71 43.15 32.64 29.91 26.01 20.74 17.61 14.79 12.29 10.49 9.09 7.96 7.00
NOx 952.79 920.50 851.27 682.27 640.94 581.78 505.40 457.75 414.64 375.55 346.71 318.93 283.96 240.56
SO2 112.24 60.52 13.97 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 207.08 177.76 142.18 129.34 126.19 123.29 120.21 119.81 117.92 115.81 114.12 110.25 100.49 85.31
PM2.5 39.92 32.26 20.75 15.26 14.21 12.61 10.40 9.07 7.90 6.88 6.12 5.48 4.79 4.01
PM10 39.92 32.26 20.75 15.26 14.21 12.61 10.40 9.07 7.90 6.88 6.12 5.48 4.79 4.01
TSP 39.92 32.26 20.75 15.26 14.21 12.61 10.40 9.07 7.90 6.88 6.12 5.48 4.79 4.01
BC 19.96 17.10 12.12 9.82 9.28 8.31 6.95 6.09 5.36 4.70 4.22 3.80 3.32 2.74

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 3: tier1 EF derived from default values
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
diesel fuels 1.213 0.203 0.123 0.002 0.698 0.494 0.205 0.002 40.46 119 717 801 184 1,820
CNG NE 0.290 NE NE 0.254 1.019 0.292 NE 58.20 NE NE NE NE NE
LPG NE 0.230 NE NE 0.202 0.811 0.233 NE 46.30 4.35 0.00 4.35 4.35 13.04
all fuels buses: 0.000019
all fuels trucks: 0.000015

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b iii is key category for NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Until 2005, NOx emissions followed mileage and fuel consumption. Since 2006, in contrast to nearly unchanged fuel consumption, emissions have decreased due to controlled catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from continual tightening of emissions laws.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since the early 1990s, exhaust emissions of NMVOC and carbon monoxide have decreased due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles show charcteristics different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10 , and TSP.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2016, recalculations were carried out due to the routine revision of TREMOD, including some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes, and the revision of National Energy Balance 2014 (NEB).

Table 4: Revised fuel consumption data
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Trucks: Diesel oil
Submission 2017 540,671 542,327 564,680 581,980 561,809
Submission 2016 540,671 542,335 564,700 581,990 570,801
absolute change 0 -8 -21 -10 -8,993
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -1.58%
Trucks: Biodiesel
Submission 2017 41,143 37,511 39,538 34,232 34,230
Submission 2016 41,143 37,512 39,540 34,233 34,529
absolute change 0 -0.6 -1.4 -0.6 -299
relative change 0.00% -0.002% -0.004% -0.002% -0.86%
Buses: Diesel oil
Submission 2017 44,578 43,230 47,068 48,138 45,238
Submission 2016 44,578 43,207 47,020 48,064 45,865
absolute change 0 23 48 74 -627
relative change 0.00% 0.05% 0.10% 0.15% -1.37%
Buses: Biodiesel
Submission 2017 3,392 2,990 3,296 2,831 2,756
Submission 2016 3,392 2,988 3,292 2,827 2,774
absolute change 0 2 3 4 -18
relative change 0.00% 0.05% 0.10% 0.15% -0.65%
Buses: CNG
Submission 2017 1,304 1,202 1,173 1,030 1,051
Submission 2016 1,304 1,201 1,170 1,026 1,046
absolute change 0 1 2 4 5
relative change 0.00% 0.07% 0.21% 0.34% 0.51%
1.A.3.b iii - Diesel oil
Submission 2017 585,249 585,557 611,748 630,118 607,047
Submission 2016 585,249 585,542 611,720 630,054 616,667
absolute change 0 15 28 64 -9,620
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.01% -1.56%
1.A.3.b iii - Biodiesel
Submission 2017 44,536 40,501 42,834 37,064 36,987
Submission 2016 44,536 40,500 42,832 37,060 37,303
absolute change 0 1 2 4 -317
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.01% -0.85%

Emission factors

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.
In addition, all EMEP/EEA defaults (for HMs and PAHs) and other tier1 values (PCDD/F) remain unchanged.

Emission estimates

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the scheduled routine revision of TREMOD, Black Carbon (BC) will be reported for all relevant sources with the next annual submission.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2016a: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.6, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heielberg & Berlin, 2016.
2. INFRAS, 2014: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.2 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.2) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2014
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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