1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles

Last updated on 14 Mar 2017 09:15 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b ii - Road Transport: Light Duty Vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b ii Light duty vehicles T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC: L/T

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for light-duty vehicles (LDV) are generated within TREMOD [1]. - The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by LDV in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of light duty vehicles, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel oil 22,864 54,127 78,326 88,164 86,974 87,828 89,228 89,222 87,980 90,101 88,294 91,309 93,451 94,644
Gasoline 23,875 14,538 13,392 9,052 8,242 7,631 6,503 5,996 5,503 5,254 4,789 4,636 4,564 4,435
LPG 0 0 0 0 239 379 414 558 505 543 558 577 575 596
CNG 0 0 0 407 578 829 1,042 1,239 1,314 1,350 1,366 1,086 1,101 1,152
Biodiesel 0 84 868 5,871 10,463 11,713 8,852 7,152 6,695 6,232 6,182 5,371 5,694 5,161
Bioethanol 0 0 0 62 119 103 124 171 213 215 212 199 198 192
1,A,3,b ii TOTAL 46,739 68,749 92,586 103,555 106,615 108,483 106,163 104,338 102,209 103,695 101,402 103,178 105,584 106,181

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.2) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: fuel-specific IEF for light-duty vehicles, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel fuels
NH3 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.35
NMVOC 74.60 72.27 50.32 28.41 25.11 21.97 17.92 15.75 14.07 12.45 11.05 9.79 8.71 7.86
NOx 610.26 527.82 477.40 438.25 428.18 412.48 393.61 383.88 375.54 368.68 360.53 354.59 350.77 345.20
SO2 80.85 60.52 13.97 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 330.46 337.07 249.18 148.73 134.63 118.68 97.86 86.30 77.47 69.13 62.10 55.97 50.79 46.79
PM2.5 105.12 93.54 60.90 37.29 34.72 31.89 28.21 26.35 24.70 22.71 20.23 17.37 14.67 12.35
PM10 105.12 93.54 60.90 37.29 34.72 31.89 28.21 26.35 24.70 22.71 20.23 17.37 14.67 12.35
TSP 105.12 93.54 60.90 37.29 34.72 31.89 28.21 26.35 24.70 22.71 20.23 17.37 14.67 12.35
BC 57.82 53.04 39.55 26.67 25.22 23.61 21.61 20.56 19.57 18.21 16.32 14.02 11.80 9.87
Gasoline fuels
NH3 0.64 2.43 19.55 21.94 21.16 21.10 22.23 21.46 20.55 19.44 18.36 17.23 16.09 14.92
NMVOC 1,112.24 599.31 388.23 295.03 289.15 269.07 230.04 208.09 190.59 176.05 166.33 158.42 151.35 147.60
NOx 665.19 584.50 437.68 338.43 333.83 307.60 258.83 228.85 203.62 182.17 166.69 153.87 143.61 137.69
SO2 12.85 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 7,981.70 7,242.15 5,708.84 4,635.73 4,547.35 4,248.48 3,710.11 3,383.51 3,093.49 2,853.42 2,669.60 2,524.16 2,405.04 2,319.84
PM2.5 5.02 4.15 4.49 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.09 2.90 2.74 2.60 2.46
PM10 5.02 4.15 4.49 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.09 2.90 2.74 2.60 2.46
TSP 7.67 4.92 4.49 4.11 3.99 3.83 3.65 3.48 3.27 3.09 2.90 2.74 2.60 2.46
BC 0.10 0.13 0.58 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.61 0.59 0.55 0.52 0.48 0.44 0.41 0.37

1 Due to lack of better information, similar emission factors are applied to fossil diesel oil and biodiesel as well as fossil gasoline and bioethanol, respectively.

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] are used instead.

Table 3: tier1 EF derived from default values
Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P PAH 1-4 PCDD/F
[g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/km]
Diesel fuels 0.002 0.203 0.698 0.493 0.123 0.205 1.213 0.002 40.456 368 386 203 368 1,324
Gasoline fuels 0.007 0.248 0.367 0.965 0.200 0.299 0.762 0.005 49.675 96.5 140 68.9 159 464
CNG NE 0.290 0.254 1.019 NE 0.292 NE NE 58.197 NE NE NE NE NE
LPG NE 0.230 0.202 0.811 NE 0.233 NE NE 46.304 4.348 0.000 4.348 4.348 13.043
all fuels 0.0000056

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b ii is key category for NOx, PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

NOx emissions increased steadily until 2002 following the shift to diesel engines. During the last ten years, emissions decline steadily due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2016, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB).

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2014. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unaltered.

Table 3: Revised consumption data
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Diesel oil
Submission 2017 87,980 90,101 88,294 91,309 93,451
Submission 2016 87,980 90,100 88,292 91,284 93,498
absolute change 0.0 1.1 2.2 25.0 -46.9
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.03% -0.05%
Biodiesel
Submission 2017 6,695 6,232 6,182 5,371 5,694
Submission 2016 6,695 6,232 6,182 5,369 5,656
absolute change 0.0 0.1 0.2 1.5 38.0
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.03% 0.67%
Gasoline
Submission 2017 5,503 5,254 4,789 4,636 4,564
Submission 2016 5,503 5,253 4,787 4,631 4,560
absolute change 0.0 1.4 2.5 4.7 4.2
relative change 0.00% 0.03% 0.05% 0.10% 0.09%
Bioethanol
Submission 2017 213 215 212 199 198
Submission 2016 213 215 212 199 198
absolute change 0.0 0.1 0,1 0.2 0.2
relative change 0.00% 0.03% 0.05% 0.10% 0.09%
LPG
Submission 2017 505 543 558 577 575
Submission 2016 505 543 557 575 607
absolute change 0.0 0.2 0.6 1.1 -31.9
relative change 0.00% 0.04% 0.10% 0.19% -5.25%
LPG
Submission 2017 1,314 1,350 1,366 1,086 1,101
Submission 2016 1,314 1,349 1,363 1,082 1,096
absolute change 0.00 1.07 3.00 3.91 5.78
relative change 0.00% 0.08% 0.22% 0.36% 0.53%

Emission factors

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.
In addition, all EMEP/EEA defaults (for HMs and PAHs) and other tier1 values (PCDD/F) remain unchanged.

Emission estimates

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the scheduled routine revision of TREMOD, Black Carbon (BC) will be reported for all relevant sources with the next annual submission.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2016a: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.6, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg & Berlin, 2016.
2. INFRAS, 2014: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.2 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.2) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2014
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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