1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars

Last updated on 14 Mar 2017 08:35 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars emissions from fuel combustion in passenger cars (PCs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
1.A.3.b i Passenger Cars T1, T3 NS, M CS, M, D NOx, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5 & PM10 & BC, Pb: L/T
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Method

Detailed information on the methods applied is provided in the main chapter on 1.A.3.b - Road Transport.

Activity data

Specific consumption data for passenger cars is generated within TREMOD [1].

The following table gives an overview of annual amounts of the fuels consumed by passenger cars in Germany.

Table 1: Annual passenger car fuel consumption, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel oil 237,993 273,767 290,816 423,601 424,174 438,539 460,344 484,113 494,834 521,594 523,676 562,210 596,330 604,158
Gasoline 1,284,554 1,268,816 1,204,479 963,174 902,294 868,206 830,031 805,598 768,554 764,541 719,378 717,973 720,801 689,659
LPG 138 138 94 2,357 4,366 8,563 15,238 23,284 21,318 23,070 22,974 22,500 20,889 19,281
CNG 1,939 2,756 3,768 4,842 5,866 6,150 6,220 6,330 5,273 5,320 5,309
Biodiesel 427 3,222 28,207 51,026 58,487 45,671 38,807 37,655 36,077 36,667 33,069 36,334 32,948
Bioethanol 6,617 13,007 11,727 15,870 23,016 29,694 31,338 31,879 30,777 31,346 29,910
NFR TOTAL 1,522,686 1,543,148 1,498,610 1,425,894 1,397,622 1,389,289 1,371,995 1,380,684 1,358,205 1,382,840 1,340,905 1,371,803 1,411,018 1,381,264

Here, the following charts underline the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel-powered passenger cars, that started around 1999/2000.

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emission factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.2) [2] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [1].

As it is not possible to present these tier3 values in a comprehendible way, the following table provides a set of fuel-specific implied emission factors (ratio of total emissions per pollutant and total annual consumption.)

Table 2: selected annual fuel-specific IEF for passenger cars, in kg/TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel fuels
NH3 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.43
NMVOC 45.48 36.81 29.14 18.56 11.72 11.01 10.39 9.88 9.51 9.24
NOx 272.85 273.54 304.32 308.30 259.01 261.64 264.54 266.31 265.66 258.54
SO2 80.77 60.52 13.97 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 249.59 204.95 151.54 87.85 56.19 53.00 50.31 48.19 46.63 45.54
BC 29.57 30.36 28.79 18.28 8.30 7.20 6.08 5.13 4.36 3.73
PM2.5 48.75 46.02 39.06 21.74 9.79 8.61 7.35 6.37 5.50 4.83
PM10 48.75 46.09 39.50 23.19 10.54 9.21 7.87 6.75 5.83 5.09
TSP 48.75 46.09 39.50 23.19 10.54 9.21 7.87 6.75 5.83 5.09
Gasoline fuels
NH3 0.66 12.62 23.11 21.32 17.73 17.12 16.44 15.78 15.32 14.97
NMVOC 730.93 281.50 150.93 105.61 78.29 75.94 74.02 72.34 71.18 70.44
NOx 615.85 341.77 216.77 142.36 77.47 70.64 64.52 59.22 55.01 51.77
SO2 11.81 8.36 3.25 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
CO 4,697.89 2,340.44 1,397.40 1,013.37 761.77 740.49 719.11 699.69 686.03 677.74
BC 0.07 0.30 0.44 0.36 0.25 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.19 0.18
PM2.5 3.67 2.75 2.48 1.87 1.37 1.31 1.24 1.18 1.13 1.10
PM10 3.67 2.75 2.48 1.87 1.37 1.31 1.24 1.18 1.13 1.10
TSP 5.58 3.03 2.48 1.87 1.37 1.31 1.24 1.18 1.13 1.10
LPG
NH3 0.84 6.92 37.33 32.64 21.56 21.30 20.87 20.45 20.17 19.86
NMVOC 329.19 282.59 49.59 9.73 7.17 7.10 6.97 6.88 6.82 6.78
NOx 1,047.36 906.06 199.57 66.08 49.89 49.26 48.07 46.68 45.65 44.78
SO2 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
CO 2,042.52 1,812.41 661.84 508.65 452.66 455.28 452.37 449.05 447.55 447.47
BC 0.24 0.33 0.75 0.56 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.28
PM2.5 0.97 1.31 3.01 2.41 1.48 1.47 1.43 1.40 1.38 1.37
PM10 0.97 1.31 3.01 2.41 1.48 1.47 1.43 1.40 1.38 1.37
TSP 0.97 1.31 3.01 2.41 1.48 1.47 1.43 1.40 1.38 1.37
CNG
NH3 - - - 10.63 10.65 10.80 10.84 10.84 10.96 11.07
NMVOC - - - 0.48 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.51
NOx - - - 40.56 39.63 37.59 35.12 33.36 31.71 30.40
SO2 - - - 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
CO - - - 258.36 258.73 258.31 254.76 252.17 251.46 252.09
BC - - - 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.11
PM2.5 - - - 0.67 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72
PM10 - - - 0.67 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72
TSP - - - 0.67 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72

1 Due to lack of better information, similar emission factors are applied to fossil diesel oil and biodiesel as well as fossil gasoline and bioethanol, respectively.

For heavy-metal (other then lead from leaded gasoline) and PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [3] have been applied.
Regarding PCDD/F, a tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] is used.

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.3.b i is key category for NH3, NOx, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5 and PM10.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, NMVOC, and carbon monoxide have decreased sharply due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2 )

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from passenger cars show charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate Matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

(from fuel combustion only; no wear/abrasion included)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies. The table below shows the evolution of the limit value for particle emissions from passenger cars with diesel engines.

With this submission, Black Carbon (BC) emissions are reported for the first time. Here, EF are estimated based on as fractions of PM as provided in [3].
Due to this fuel-specific fractions, the trend of BC emissions reflects the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel ("dieselisation").

Table: EURO norms and their effect on limit values of PM emissions from diesel passenger cars
exhaust emission standard (EURO norm) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6
in force for type approval since: 1 Jul 1992 1 Jan 1996 1 Jan 2000 1 Jan 2005 1 Sep 2009 1 Sep 2014
in force for initial registration since 1 Jan 1993 1 Jan 1997 1 Jan 2001 1 Jan 2006 1 Jan 2011 1 Jan 2015
resulting PM limit value in [mg/km] 180 80/1001 50 25 5 5

1 for direct injection engines

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2016, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2014. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted.

Table 3: Revised consumption data
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Diesel oil
Submission 2017 237,993 273,767 290,816 423,601 494,834 521,594 523,676 562,210 596,330
Submission 2016 237,993 273,767 290,816 423,601 494,834 521,610 523,706 562,299 597,356
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 -16 -30 -89 -1,025
relative change 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% -0.003% -0.006% -0.016% -0.172%
Biodiesel
Submission 2017 0 427 3,222 28,207 37,655 36,077 36,667 33,069 36,334
Submission 2016 0 427 3,222 28,207 37,655 36,078 36,669 33,075 36,135
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -2 -5 198
relative change 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% -0.003% -0.006% -0.016% 0.549%
Gasoline
Submission 2017 1,284,554 1,268,816 1,204,479 963,174 768,554 764,541 719,378 717,973 720,801
Submission 2016 1,284,554 1,268,816 1,204,479 963,174 768,554 764,540 719,376 717,977 721,500
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 -3 -699
relative change 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% -0.097%
Bioethanol
Submission 2017 0 0 0 6,617 29,694 31,338 31,879 30,777 31,346
Submission 2016 0 0 0 6,617 29,694 31,338 31,879 30,777 31,376
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -30
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.10%
LPG
Submission 2017 138 138 94 2,357 21,318 23,070 22,974 22,500 20,889
Submission 2016 138 138 94 2,357 21,318 23,070 22,975 22,502 22,108
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1,219
relative change 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% -0.001% -0.002% -0.005% -5.514%
CNG
Submission 2017 0 0 0 1,939 6,150 6,220 6,330 5,273 5,320
Submission 2016 0 0 0 1,939 6,150 6,221 6,336 5,281 5,331
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -5 -7 -11
relative change 0.000% 0.000% -0.031% -0.086% -0.141% -0.209%

Emission factors

Due to the variety of tier3 emission factors applied, it is not possible to display any changes in these data sets in a comprehendible way.
In addition, all EMEP/EEA defaults (for HM and PAHs) and other tier1 values (PCDD/F) remain unchanged.

Emission estimates

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS, 2009) [5]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the scheduled routine revision of TREMOD, Black Carbon (BC) will be reported for all relevant sources with the next annual submission.


Bibliography
1. ifeu, 2016a: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin, 2016.
2. INFRAS, 2014: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.2 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.2) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2014
3. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, Copenhagen, 2016
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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