1.A.2.g vii - Offroad Construction Vehicles

Last updated on 30 Aug 2017 16:54 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under NFR 1.A.2.g vii - Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction, emissions from Off-Road Construction Vehicles and Construction Machinery are reported in the German inventory.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Category for (by1)
Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction
1.A.2.g vii Offroad Construction Vehicles T1, T2 NS, M CS, D, M PM2.5 & PM10 & BC: L/T

Method

Activity data

Sector-specific consumption data is included in the primary fuel-delivery data are available from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2016) [1].

Table 1: Sources for primary fuel-delivery data
through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA, 2016) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.g vii) and off-road vehicles in commercial/institutional use (1.A.4. ii) as well as agriculture and forestry (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) based upon annual shares derived from TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2016b) (cf. NFR 1.A.4 - mobile).

Table 2: Percental annual contribution of 1.A.2.g vii to fuel-specific over-all delivery data provided in NEB line 67
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Fuels 42% 45% 44% 40% 41% 40% 41% 40% 40% 41% 40% 40% 40% 40%
Gasoline Fuels 31% 60% 55% 58% 58% 53% 62% 66% 64% 66% 66% 67% 67% 67%
Table 3: Annual fuel consumption in construction vehicles and mobile machinery, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Diesel Oil 47,301 44,401 42,199 35,312 32,753 33,927 32,866 34,282 36,152 35,023 37,602 35,673 37,142 39,104 41,507
Gasoline 1,420 4,453 4,079 4,392 4,258 4,292 3,871 4,510 2,939 2,779 2,588 787 777 832 811
Biodiesel 0 0 0 304 716 988 1,468 1,695 2,490 2,285 2,477 2,339 2,161 2,384 2,270
Bioethanol 0 0 0 5 29 62 52 86 84 107 106 35 33 36 35
NFR TOTAL 48,721 48,854 46,278 40,014 37,757 39,270 38,257 40,573 41,664 40,195 42,773 38,833 40,113 42,356 44,622

Emission factors

The emission factors used here are of rather different quality:
Basically, for all main pollutants, carbon monoxide and particulate matter, annual IEF modelled within [3] are used, representing the sector's vehicle-fleet composition, the development of mitigation technologies and the effect of fuel-quality legislation.

In contrast, without country-specific information, regarding all heavy metals and POPs, tier1 values are applied. Here, EF for exhaust HMs* and PAHs have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2016) [4], . (*: For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, additonal emissions are are calculated from 1990 to 1997 based upon contry-specific emission factors from [3].)

The tier1 value apllied for PCDD/F has been derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [5] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For HCB and PCBs, no emission factors are available at the moment.

As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil and gasoline are also applied to biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2015 emission estimates
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM BC Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[…]P ∑PAH 1-4 PCDD/F HCB PCBs
[kg/TJ] [g/TJ] [mg/TJ] [g I-Teq] [mg/TJ]
Diesel fuels1 0.172 482 4182 0.372 2842 27.32,3 20.78 1.215 0.235 0.124 0.0024 1.165 41.35 1.635 0.235 23.285 6605 1,1645 8004 1844 2,8476 1.627 NE NE
Gasoline fuels1 0.092 5612 772 0.372 36.8002 4.712,3 0.248 0.764 0.235 0.204 0.0074 1.155 39.045 1.615 0.235 22.975 9195 9195 904 2044 2,1316 2.767 NE NE

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil and biofuels
2 country-specific values from [3]
3 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP consists of PM2.5)
4 tier1 defaults from [4], Chapter: 1.A.3.b i-iv; Table 3-103
5 tier1 defaults from [4], Chapter: 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i; Table 3-1
6 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
7 tier1 values derived from [5]
8 estimated via a f-BC 0.05 as provided in [4], Chapter 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a ii, b ii, c ii, 1.A.5.b i - Non-road, note to Table 3-1: Tier 1 emission factors for off-road machinery

Discussion of emission trends

NFR 1.A.2.g vii is key source for emissions of PM2.5, PM10 and BC.

Unregulated pollutants (NH3, HMs, POPs, …)

For all unregulated pollutants, emission trends directly follow the trend in fuel consumption.

Regulated pollutants

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

For all regulated pollutants, emission trends follow not only the trend in fuel consumption but also reflect the impact of fuel-quality and exhaust-emission legislation.

Here, as NMVOC emissions are dominated by gasoline fuels, the trend shows the same strong decline after 2011 as the underlying activity data (see above and NFR 1.A.4 - mobile, Table 1.)

Particulate matter (BC, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Over-all PM emissions are by far dominated by emissions from diesel oil combustion with the falling trend basically following the decline in fuel consumption between 2000 and 2005.
Nonetheless, the decrease of the over-all emission trend was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Additional contributors such as the impact of TSP emissions from the use of leaded gasoline (until 1997) have no significant effect onto over-all emission estimates.

Recalculations

Activity data

Table 4: Revised annual fuel shares
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
diesel fuels
Submission 2017 0.423 0.454 0.444 0.400 0.410 0.396 0.405 0.404 0.396 0.414 0.401 0.401 0.404
Submission 2016 0.420 0.446 0.435 0.392 0.402 0.388 0.396 0.394 0.385 0.402 0.389 0.389 0.392
absolute change 0.002 0.008 0.009 0.008 0.008 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.011 0.012 0.011 0.011 0.012
relative change 0.54% 1.88% 1.96% 2.02% 2.01% 1.98% 2.19% 2.41% 2.73% 3.02% 2.93% 2.93% 3.06%
gasoline fuels
Submission 2017 0.315 0.597 0.551 0.584 0.584 0.526 0.620 0.661 0.640 0.657 0.665 0.667 0.668
Submission 2016 0.315 0.597 0.551 0.584 0.584 0.526 0.620 0.661 0.640 0.657 0.665 0.667 0.668
absolute change 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

For all years as of 1990, the revised fuel shares resulted in respectively revised activity data. For 2013, activity data was additionally affected by changes in the underlying NEB data.

Table 5: Resulting revision of activity data, in TJ
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Submission 2017 47,301 44,401 42,199 33,470 34,915 34,334 35,976 38,641 37,309 40,079 38,012 39,303 41,487
Submission 2016 47,046 43,582 41,388 32,797 34,446 33,480 35,081 37,765 36,318 38,903 36,929 38,185 39,658
absolute change 256 819 812 673 469 855 895 876 991 1,176 1,083 1,118 1,830
relative change 0.54% 1.88% 1.96% 2.05% 1.36% 2.55% 2.55% 2.32% 2.73% 3.02% 2.93% 2.93% 4.61%
Submission 2017 1,420 4,453 4,079 4,288 4,354 3,923 4,596 3,022 2,886 2,694 822 810 869
Submission 2016 1,420 4,453 4,079 4,288 4,354 3,923 4,596 3,022 2,886 2,694 822 810 814
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 6.77%
Submission 2017 48,721 48,854 46,278 37,757 39,270 38,257 40,573 41,664 40,195 42,773 38,833 40,113 42,356
Submission 2016 48,466 48,035 45,466 37,084 38,800 37,402 39,677 40,787 39,204 41,597 37,750 38,995 40,471
absolute change 256 819 812 673 469 855 895 876 991 1,176 1,083 1,118 1,885
relative change 0.53% 1.71% 1.79% 1.81% 1.21% 2.29% 2.26% 2.15% 2.53% 2.83% 2.87% 2.87% 4.66%

source: own estimates based on [1] and [3]

In contrast, all Emission Factors remain unrevised.

However, EF(BC) have been implemented for the first time based on the BC-fractions provided in [4]:

Table 6: Newly implemented EF(BC), in kg/TJ
Diesel Fuels1 Gasoline Fuels
Submission 2017 22.4 0.24
Submission 2016 NE NE

1 annual value for 2014

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2014 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [6]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides a routine revision of the TREMOD MM model, no specific improvements are planned at the moment.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in [4] and [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained in the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to diesel and biodiesel.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2016: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/7-0-Bilanzen-1990-2014.html, Köln & Berlin, 2016.
2. BAFA, 2016: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, Eschborn, 2016.
3. ifeu, 2016b: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Heidelberg, 2016.
4. EMEP/EEA, 2016: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016; Copenhagen, 2016.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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